Pukeweed Soup: A New Tale to Tell (Windom)

Encyclopedia of Folk Medicine
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Following inhalation of aerosolized toxin, localized pulmonary effects are of greatest concern, although systemic toxicity is possible. Work is progressing on the use of antiricin antibodies, but it is not in current clinical use. Ricin poisoning: A comprehensive review. JAMA ;— Ricin poisoning. Toxicol Rev ; — Skin-associated complaints are the most common form of plant poisoning reported to Poison Control Centers. Dermatologists often see patients with complaints directly or indirectly related to plant exposures Table 4. For example, outdoor workers may directly develop dermatitis from the toxin-laden pollen from the various plants in the family Compositae Asteraceae e.

Indirectly, the use of perfume or other lotions that contain plant derivatives may produce dermatitis in an unsuspecting user. The majority of these complaints are managed by primary care physicians or dermatologists. This section provides a brief overview of the problem and should be supplemented by the use of a reference text or the advice of a dermatologist. Poison Control Centers, physicians, botanists, and toxicologists are frequently confronted by situations in which a plant is implicated in the formation of a rash, suggesting that the ability to recognize plant-induced dermatitis is important for all.

Mechanical Irritants Mechanical injury, sometimes called toxin-mediated urticaria, is generally induced by plants with obvious physical characteristics that directly injure the skin, such as the barbs of aloe or the trichomes of stinging nettles Urtica dioica Table 5. In the latter case, the stingers are fragile hypodermic syringe-like tubules that contain a mixture of irritant chemicals which are injected into the skin after the trichome breaks the dermal barrier. Following exposure, patients rapidly develop short-lived wheals with intense pruritis. Less-obvious exposures occur when the idioblasts found in common houseplants such as Dieffenbachia.

Dunal Apocynaceae Allamanda cathartica L. Nerium oleander L. Aristolochiaceae Aristolochia elegans M. Mast A. Bromeliaceae Ananas comosus L. Merrill Chenopodiaceae Sarcobatus vermiculatus Hook. Hance Setcreasea pallida Rose cv. Gaillardia species Helenium autumnale L.

Iva species Lactuca sativa L. Oxytenia acerosa Nutt. Botanical name Parthenium argentatum Gray P. Rudbeckia hirta L. Soliva pterosperma Juss. Tanacetum vulgare L. Tagetes minuta L. Ricinus communis L. See Table 7 Fumariaceae Dicentra spectabilis L. Ginkgoaceae Ginkgo biloba L.

Gramineae Poaceae Oryza sativa L. Panicum glutinosum Sw. Secale cereale L. Hydrophyllaceae Phacelia campanularia Gray P. See Table 5 Juglandaceae Juglans nigra L. Leguminosae Fabaceae Prosopis glandulosa Torr. Hyacinthus species Tulipa species. Botanical name Loranthaceae Phoradendron serotinum Raf. Moraceae Maclura pomifera Raf. See Table 9 Myrtaceae Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Primulaceae Primula farinosa L. Solanum carolinense L.

Botanical name Cactaceae Opuntia species e. Cannabaceae Humulus lupulus L. Cornaceae Cornus sanguinea L. Euphorbiaceae Acidoton urens Sw. Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh C. Small C. Dalechampia scandens L. Platygyne hexandra Jacq. Tragia volubilis L. Hydrophyllaceae Phacelia imbricata Greene P. Wigandia caracasana H.

Leguminosae Fabaceae Lupinus hirsutissimus Benth. Malpighiaceae Malpighia polytricha A. Sterculiaceae Sterculia apetala Jacq. Weddell Urera baccifera L. Weddell Urtica dioica L. These idioblasts contain both needle-like calcium oxalate crystals mechanical irritants in a soup of irritant chemicals chemical irritants; Table 6. The crystals are forcibly injected into the skin or mucosa following mechanical stimulation of the idioblasts. Depending on the anatomical location of the crystal deposition, the clinical effects can be minor e.

Treatment is generally supportive and symptomatic in nature. Skin involvement with a mechanical irritant should be treated with demulcent cremes, ice, and analgesics, and perhaps removal of the offending agent if appropriate. Ocular involvement is similarly managed with symptomatic care that may include ocular irrigation and systemic analgesics, and most exposures should prompt consultation with an ophthalmologist.

Oropharyngeal exposures mandate rigorous attention to the airway, and patients may require corticosteroids to limit pharyngeal swelling. Chemical Irritants Chemical irritants differ from the mechanical irritants in that they produce their clinical effects on the basis of a physicochemical quality of the toxin rather than through overt mechanical means Table 7.

Some of these toxins may be introduced along with mechanical irritants, as already noted. Chemical irritants may be directly irritating on the basis of pH or other chemical effects e. These agents may be protoxins that require metabolic transformation to produce the ultimate toxin [e. Chili peppers Capsicum spp. Treatment of chemical-induced irritation includes decontamination by thorough washing of the affected area, analgesics, and symptomatic care. Allergens Although any type of allergic response may occur, a type IV, or delayed, hypersensitivity response, also known as allergic contact dermatitis ACD , is by far the most common caused by plants Table 8.

Botanical name Araceae Alocasia species e. Don Anthurium andreanum Linden Arum italicum Mill. Caladium bicolor Ait. Calla palustris L. Colocasia species e. Krause Philodendron scandens C. Koch Palmae Arecaceae Caryota mitis Lour. Vitaceae Parthenocissus quinquefolia L. The general pathogenesis of this reaction involves a primary exposure to a toxin resulting in an immune response i. In some cases, particularly with toxins that are too small to elicit an immune response, the binding of the toxin or its metabolite to an endogenous compound i.

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Upon reexposure to the same, or closely related, toxin the primed immune system recognizes the antigen or haptenized endogenous compound , and an immunological response is triggered. The result is a slowly developing over hours to days rash, consisting typically of pain, itch, redness, swelling, and blisters localized to the affected area. Although the reaction resembles irritant dermatitis, it is more slow to develop and requires previous exposure. Botanical name Agavaceae Agave species e. Apocynaceae Acokanthera oblongifolia Hochst.

Plumeria species Asclepiadaceae Calotropis gigantea L. Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia cotinifolia L. Excoecaria agallocha L. Grimmeodendron eglandulosum A. Hippomane mancinella L. Pedilanthus tithymaloides L. Sapium hippomane G. Stillingia sylvatica Gard. Synadenium grantii Hook. Ranunculaceae Caltha palustris L. Clematis species e. Pulsatilla patens Mill. Ranunculus species e. Thymelaeaceae Daphne mezereum L. Dirca palustris L. Diagnosis includes the use of patch testing, in which a single or several known allergens are applied to the skin and a reaction is sought and is.

Botanical name Anacardium occidentale L. Comocladia species e. Urban Cotinus coggygria Scop.

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World Digital Library in Arabic. And if you have a place that sells homemade tortillas by all means buy some. Great list. There is no more phlegm to bring up, so the cough is unproductive. Some traditions of folklore also hold that it is a potent aid in the spiritual world, being of particular use in spells and rituals that involve healing and protection.

Mangifera indica L. Metopium toxiferum L. Gray T. Gillis; Rhus toxicodendron L. Steudel T. Although more advanced testing is available, this is a common initial screen for contact allergens. Occasionally, irritant dermatitis may result and be misinterpreted as ACD, so expert interpretation is needed. The risk of patch screening by this method is that sensitization to any of the tested compounds may occur just from the testing alone, so often the most strongly sensitizing plants are excluded from testing. The primary therapy, of course, is avoidance of the known allergen.

Barriers include the use of clothing or of barrier creams that can be applied if an exposure is anticipated. Treatment of the ACD once it has occurred is generally symptomatic, with the use of analgesics, antipruritic medications e. Desensitization may be attempted for patients with severe reactions or unavoidable exposures. Phototoxins This is a relatively uncommon clinical entity, in which certain compounds increase the sensitivity of the skin photodermatitis to ultraviolet light e. Botanical name Compositae Asteraceae Achillea millefolium L. Anthemis cotula L. Moraceae Ficus carica L.

Rosaceae Agrimonia eupatoria L. Rutaceae Citrus aurantiifolia Christm. Swingle Dictamnus albus L. Pelea anisata H. Mann Ruta graveolens L. Umbelliferae Apiaceae Ammi majus L. Anthriscus sylvestris L. Hofmann Daucus carota L. Heracleum lanatum Michx. Pastinaca sativa L. Classically, psoralen, a furocoumarin derived from celery and other plants, enters the skin either directly by contact or via the systemic circulation following ingestion. In the skin, the psoralen is activated by sunlight to produce oxidant skin damage, which manifests as burning, erythematous skin in sun-exposed areas, which may blister severely i.

Interestingly, psoralens may be administered therapeutically to patients with dermal disorders such as psoriasis to increase the sensitivity of the skin to therapeutic ultraviolet light. Pseudophytodermatitides Given the ubiquity of plants and the constant interaction of humans with plants, many dermatological disorders are often attributed to a contemporaneous plant exposure.

However, mimics of plant dermatitis are common and may be missed due to the often-simultaneous nature of the two exposures. For example, pesticides, fungicides, insects, and soil products may each induce dermatitis that is often indistinguishable from one of the foregoing syndromes. Without intense investigation or advanced medical testing, this link may be missed and the patient advised incorrectly to avoid a certain plant exposure. More consequentially, the patient may not be aware of the dermatitis trigger. The best method by which to distinguish pseudophytodermatitis from phytodermatitis is by having the necessary clinical suspicion and attentiveness to the exposure.

Gastrointestinal GI decontamination is the use of medical methods to decrease absorption of ingested toxins. Not long ago, it was widely believed that the proper initial approach to the management of all patients with toxic exposures included an aggressive attempt at gastrointestinal decontamination. Its widespread use was based on the assumption that these methods were effective at toxin removal and that they improved patient outcomes.

That is, if a type of procedure harms more patients than it helps, then that procedure should not generally be employed. The vast majority of plant exposures are to nontoxic plants or to nontoxic amounts of potentially toxic plants. However, to optimize outcome, as the risk of harm or death from a poisoning rises, the acceptable risk from a gastrointestinal decontamination becomes larger.

Thus, the perceived risk of harm from the poison must be tempered by the risk that the exposure was consequential, and both balanced against the risk of harm from. Because there are not very large numbers of plant-poisoned patients, particularly those poisoned by any single type of plant, determination of the risk of most plants has been elusive.

The remainder of the book contains details concerning the known and assumed risks associated with exposure to the various plants. Syrup of Ipecac There are few circumstances in which the induction of emesis vomiting is the preferred method of gastrointestinal decontamination. Depending on the plant ingested and the time since exposure, syrup of ipecac may be able to evacuate a substantial amount of the toxin before its absorption into the systemic circulation.

In the interest of preventing iatrogenic harm, no patient who has ingested an irritant plant should receive ipecac, as it is likely that the irritated esophagus and oral cavity are likely to be reinjured with vomiting. Discussion with a Poison Control Center or knowledgeable physician is probably most appropriate before administration. Ipecac is unlikely to be necessary for plant-poisoned patients once they are in the hospital, although there may be rare exceptions.

The availability of syrup of ipecac has been dramatically reduced over the past few years, making it less likely that it will be used in most circumstances. Depending on the plant ingested and the time since exposure, orogastric lavage may be able to evacuate a substantial amount of the toxin before its absorption into the systemic circulation. However, because orogastric lavage is not without risk of complication e. In general, performance of this technique is limited to trained hospital personnel and should, in most cases, be done in consultation with a Poison Control Center or medical toxicologist.

Activated Charcoal Certain patients should receive oral activated charcoal. This substance is capable of adsorbing many diverse toxins to its porous surface and can prevent the absorption of toxins into the body. Clearly, the ability of activated charcoal to adsorb the vast majority of plant-derived toxins is poorly studied and unlikely to be studied in the near future. However, based on current understanding of the adsorption characteristics of activated charcoal and the physicochemical properties of many plant toxins e.

This, coupled with a low risk of side effects e. Oral activated charcoal should not be given to patients who have ingested injurious plant substances, those likely to vomit particularly if they are likely to lose consciousness or seize , or those who are not presumed to have ingested a consequential quantity of a toxic plant i. Whole Bowel Irrigation Because many plant-borne toxins are ingested in an impervious seed, it is likely that there will be a delay to the release of the toxic compound. Oral activated charcoal administered concomitantly is often appropriate.

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Each case needs to be individually considered. Position paper: Cathartics. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol ;42 2 — Position paper: Whole bowel irrigation. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol ; 42 2 — Position paper: Gastric lavage. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol ;42 2 : — Position paper: Ipecac syrup. Position paper: Single-dose activated charcoal. Clin Toxicol Phila ;43 2 — Poison treatment in the home. Pediatrics ; 5 — Techniques used to prevent gastrointestinal absorption. Hew York, NY. Multiple-dose activated charcoal for treatment of yellow oleander poisoning: A single-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

Lancet ;— Guidelines for the Management of Poisoning Consensus Panel.

Author Biography

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Guideline on the use of ipecac syrup in the out-of-hospital management of ingested poisons. Clin Toxicol Phila ;43 1 :1— It is supported generally on other plants or a fence. The fruit, a pea-shaped pod about 1. This hilar spot serves to distinguish them from look-alike seeds from Mexican vines of the genus Rhynchosia, in which the black and red colors are reversed. Distribution: This weed is common throughout the tropics and subtropics. The seeds are used in jewelry, in handicrafts, and as good-luck charms. Tourists, usually unaware of the toxicity of the seeds, often import them into the United States as keepsakes and gifts.

Toxic Part: The toxin is contained within the hard, water-impermeable coat of the seeds. The toxin is not released unless the seed is chewed and digested or the seed coat is otherwise broken for example, when the seeds are pierced and threaded on a string as in a necklace. Toxin: Abrin, a plant lectin toxalbumin related to ricin, inhibits cellular protein. Clinical Findings: Ingested seeds generally remain intact as they pass through.

However, if the seeds are chewed, pulverized, or digested i. Symptoms depend upon the amount of toxin exposure and include nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, diarrhea, and dehydration. Variations in the severity of toxicity may be related to the degree to which the seeds are ground or chewed before ingestion. Management: Ingestion of intact seeds does not cause toxicity in the majority of cases and requires no therapy.

Cases associated with gastrointestinal symptomatology need to be assessed for signs of dehydration and electrolyte abnormalities. Activated charcoal should be administered. Intravenous hydration, antiemetics, and electrolyte replacement may be necessary in severe cases, particularly those involving children. Consultation with a Poison Control Center should be considered. On the mechanism of protein-synthesis inhibition by abrin and ricin.

Eur J Bioochem ;— Davies JH. Abrus precatorius rosary pea : The most common lethal plant poison. J Fla Med Assoc ;— Abrin poisoning. Toxicol Rev ;— Fernando C. Poisoning due to Abrus precatorius jequirity bean. Anaesthesia ;— Hart M. Hazards to health: jequirty-bean poisoning. Kinamore PA. Abrus and Ricinus ingestion: Management of three cases. Clin Toxicol ; — Olsnes S. The history of ricin, abrin and related toxins. Toxicol ;— Acokanthera oppositifolia Lam. The leaves are large, leathery, and have smooth edges. The fruit resembles a small, ellipsoidal plum and turns reddish to purple-black at maturity; it Acokanthera oppositifolia left Acokanthera oppositifolia, close-up of branch showing opposite leaves below.

Injury to the plant causes exudation of copious amounts of white latex, as is characteristic of this plant family. Distribution: These plants are grown fairly commonly, often as hedges in Cali-. Toxic Part: The fruit pulp contains only traces of toxin and, in some species, is. The seeds contain the greatest concentration, but the toxin is distributed in substantial amounts throughout the plant, including the wood. Toxin: Cardioactive steroids resembling digitalis. Toxicity has a variable latent period that depends on the quantity ingested.

Dysrhythmias are usually expressed as sinus bradycardia, premature ventricular contractions, atrioventricular conduction defects, or ventricular tachydysrhythmias. Hyperkalemia, if present, may be an indicator of toxicity. Management: Gastrointestinal decontamination as appropriate, serial electro-. J Pharm Sci ;— On the determination of ouabain in Acokanthera abyssinica seeds. Boll Chim Farm ;— Ethnobotany of Apocynaceae species in Kenya.

J Ethnopharmacol ;— Naturally occurring cardiac glycosides. Med J Aust ;— Aconitum species Family: Ranunculaceae Aconitum columbianum Nutt. Aconitum napellus L. Aconitum reclinatum Gray Aconitum uncinatum L. They resemble delphiniums. The char-. The dried seedpods contain numerous tiny seeds. Aconitum napellus is the commonly cultivated monkshood. Distribution: North America, Eurasia. Aconitum columbianum grows in mon-.

Aconitum napellus is cultivated and naturalized in New York, Ontario, and Newfoundland. Toxic Part: The whole plant is poisonous, especially the leaves and roots. Toxin: Aconitine and related alkaloids, sodium channel activators. Clinical Findings: Exposures are relatively uncommon.

However, these plants are. Symptoms are predominantly neurological and cardiac. There is transient burning in the mouth after ingestion, followed after several hours by increased salivation, vomiting, diarrhea, and a tingling sensation in the skin paresthesia. The patient may complain of headache, muscular weakness, and dimness of vision. Bradycardia and other cardiac dysrhythmias can be associated with severe blood pressure abnormalities.

Coma may develop, and convulsions may be a terminal event. Heart rhythm and blood pressure should be monitored and treated with appropriate medications and supportive care. Recovery is generally complete within 24 hours. Consultation with a Poison Control Center should be strongly considered. Aconitine poisoning following the ingestion of Chinese herbal medicine: A report of eight cases. Aust N Z J Med ;— Martens PR, Vandevelde K.

A near lethal case of combined strychnine and aconitine poisoning. Cardiotoxicity after accidental herb-induced aconite poisoning. Actaea rubra Aiton Willd. Actaea spicata L. Berry-like fruit forms in the summer or early autumn; their color depends upon the species Actaea pachypoda, white; A. Distribution: Actaea species grow throughout the north temperate zone: Actaea. Toxic Part: Only the fruit and roots are poisonous. Clinical Findings: The juice exerts a direct irritant and vesicant action on the.

After ingestion, blistering and ulceration of the mucous membranes associated with salivation can occur. Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, and diarrhea may occur. Intravenous hydration, antiemetics, and electrolyte replacement may be necessary for patients with severe gastrointestinal symptoms, particularly in children. References Bacon A. An experiment with the fruit of red baneberry. Rhodora ;— Hegnauer R. Birkhauser Verlag, Basel, Distribution: Adenium are cultivated as houseplants and may be grown out-.

Toxic part: The whole plant is poisonous. Clinical Findings: There are no adequately documented human poisonings, and clinical descriptions are derived primarily from animal reports. Substantial ingestion may lead to toxicity. Yamauchi T, Abe F. Cardiac glycosides and pregnanes from Adenium obesum: studies on the constituents of Adenium. Chem Pharm Bull ;— Adonis species Family: Ranunculaceae Adonis aestivalis L. Adonis amurensis Regel and Radde Adonis annua L. Adonis vernalis L. Common Names: Flor de.

Distribution: Adonis species are found primarily in cultivation, usually in rock gardens, in the north temperate zones of the United States. They are alpine plants from southern Europe, Asia Minor, and Asia. Toxic Part: The whole plant. Management: Gastrointestinal decontamination as appropriate, serial electrocardiograms, and serum potassium determinations should be performed.

Detection of poisoning by plant-origin cardiac glycoside with the Abbott TDx analyzer. Clin Chem ;— Davies RL. Whyte PB. Aust Vet J ;— Aesculus hippocastanum L. Aesculus pavia L. Aesculus sylvatica Bartr. The seedpod is leathery and may be smooth or warty. The common name, buckeye, is derived from the seed, which is glossy brown with a white scar. Distribution: These plants occur primarily in the central and eastern temperate. Toxic Part: The seeds and twigs are poisonous.

People unfamiliar with the. Toxin: Aescin, a complex mixture of saponins. Clinical Findings: Most ingestions result in little or no toxicity. The saponins are. Allergic sensitization to this plant is common and can cause severe allergic reactions. Management: If severe gastrointestinal symptoms occur, intravenous hydration, antiemetics, and electrolyte replacement may be necessary for patients with severe gastrointestinal symptoms, particularly in children. Serious plant poisonings in Switzerland — Case analysis from the Swiss Toxicology Information Center. Schweiz Med Wochenschr ;— Horse chestnut Aesculus spp.

Pharmacokinetics of beta-escin after administration of different Aesculus extract-containing formulations. Pharmazie ;— Horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum pollen: A Frequent cause of allergic sensitization in urban children. Allergy ;— New saponins from the seeds of Aesculus chinensis.

Chem Pharm Bull Tokyo ;— Aethusa cynapium L. The leaves resemble parsley but have a glossy shine on both sides and an unpleasant garlic-like odor. As the common name suggests, this plant may be consumed if mistaken for parsley. In North American folk practice, many. Among Native American remedies, burdock root was used for treating pimples, and one species of violet, Viola pubescens, has been used by the Iroquois to treat spots Herrick , , both these remedies mirroring ones found in Britain.

In addition, a huge number of other plant species have been used, including Achillea species Densmore ; Perry 40 ; Alnus serrulata Hamel and Chiltoskey 22 ; various species of Artemisia, such as A. Poultices of chamomile Chamaemelum nobile or of red clover Trifolium sp. Water that collected in old tree stumps was used to wash the face Micheletti Perhaps because acne is associated with puberty, there have been some strange ideas as to its cause. Cannon, Anthon S.

Popular Beliefs and Superstitions from Utah. Edited by Wayland D. African tradition Hand and Jeannine E. Densmore, Frances. Use of Plants by the Chippewa Indians. Herrick, James William. Iroquois Medical Botany. PhD thesis. Albany: State University of New York, Micheletti, Enza ed. Perry, F. Museum and Art Notes 2 2 , Prince, Dennis. London: Fontana, Train, Percy, James R. Henrichs, and W. Andrew Archer. Weber, Steven A. David Seaman. Havasupai Habitat: A. Whitings Ethnography of a Traditional Indian Culture. African tradition Every oral tradition is as extensive as its community.

In the case of the many thousands of black African slaves imported from the seventeenth century onward into North America, these traditions were drawn from all over West Africa, and never represented a single tradition. Since emancipation of the slaves, all the fragmentary communities have become gradually absorbed into the wider patchwork of North.

American traditions, yet there still remain many distinctive features, and indeed todays folk medicine is indebted to African slaves for some of its remedies. At least one slave owed his freedom to imparting a remedy for gravel and stone to a white man. As displaced people with no rights and no wealth, slaves must have been even more self-dependent than their forbears in times of illness. Although to their owners black slaves represented a valuable investment, which it was in their interest to keep well and working, plantation owners soon found that the remedies known to the slaves were at least as good as anything they could offer themselves.

Faced with a completely unfamiliar ora, it must have been a daunting task indeed for slaves to nd their own remedies. Food items such as yams, okra, and kola imported to feed them cheaply were probably among the few familiar items, and it is not surprising, therefore, to nd that some of their folk medical remedies were based on these.

Pods of Okra Abelmoschus esculentus , boiled, formed a nutritious broth for invalids Heinerman 70 , and kola nuts Cola acuminata were used to treat stomach pain Sloane , 2: Experimentation with the local ora led to use of a large number of native plant species, too. Pneumonia, to which the slaves of South Carolina were apparently particularly susceptible, was treated with snakeroot Aristolochia serpentaria. Ringworm was treated with a wash prepared from the so-called ringworm bush Cassia alata. The seeds of avocado Persea americana were ground to treat diarrhea, dysentery, and whitlows Heinerman 72, Not only was the ora unfamiliar, but some of the diseases that aficted the slaves were unfamiliar too.

There were parasitic worms different from those in Africa. Barton in his early nineteenth-century journal recorded the use of persimmon fruit Dios-. Plantation owners sometimes dosed slave children with a plant called cowitch Macuna pruriens , which, according to Bancroft in the eighteenth century, was remarkably successful in expelling worms Bancroft The disease known as yaws was especially prevalent among black slaves, and it seems that their own remedies for it were fairly effective. The roots of the lime Citrus aurantifolia were used in treating this condition, as described in an eighteenthcentury account by Du Pratz Du Pratz An infusion of holly berries Ilex obcordata was successfully used as a wash for treating the sores of yaws Heinerman Lime was also used to treat scurvy and sores on the feet.

The fruit of papaya Carica papaya was used to treat sores and stomach ache. Cayenne pepper was used to treat a condition described as cachexia, characterized by weight loss, fall in body temperature, and, if untreated, death Heinerman Snake bite was treated with various plants, including so-called rattlesnakes master Aralia spinosa , while it was claimed that inoculation with boneset Eupatorium perfoliatum could actually render a snake bite harmless Descourtilz , 3: Barton records the cure of a black slave suffering from consumption.

It consisted of the root of Indian turnip Arisaema triphyllum boiled in milk Barton , 1: Pregnancy among slaves represented another child born into slavery; this was of benet to the slave owner, but women would often go to extreme lengths to avoid pregnancy and childbirth under these circumstances. It is ironic that the very plant, cotton Gossypium herbaceum , for which their freedom had been sacriced was in some cases able to afford relief from unwanted pregnancy especially unwanted where this was a result of rape by the plan-.

A decoction of the roots of the cotton plant was found to be an effective abortifacient, taken during the rst two months of pregnancy. The planters, in their turn, tried to prevent the effects of this plant by forcibly administering black haw Viburnum prunifolium to their female slaves Kings American Dispensatory, , quoted by Micheletti [ed. Apart from the empirical folk remedies they used, slaves have also bequeathed a legacy of their fundamentally different approach to illness, which was seen by them as caused by a loss of balance between forces for good and evil.

Some illnesses were regarded as natural, others as having supernatural causes. For the latter category, it was necessary to have recourse to magical healing, administered usually by a respected voodoo healer. Indeed, these unnatural illnesses were often thought to be caused by an enemy, and they could be cured only by someone with magical powers.

Some plants were directly associated with spiritual healing and magical powers. Among them the cotton tree Ceiba pentandra was regarded as consecrated to spirits. It was never cut down; religious ceremonies were often held under it. The overlook bean, or horse bean Canavalia ensiformis , was regarded as a watchman and was planted around valuable crops to protect them from plunder Macfadyen , 1: Remnants of these folk beliefs, mixed and modied by religious and Western medical systems, still persist among black Africans today Matthews The extent to which there was an exchange of information between Native Americans and the black slaves is difcult to establish, but there are examples of remedies used in common.

The Indian turnip Arisaema triphyllum , for example, was used by the Cherokee as well as by slaves to treat consumption Hamel and Chiltoskey. The snakeroot Aristolochia serpentaria was used among numerous Native American tribes to treat snake bite Moerman He combines empirical treatment with herbs with spiritual divination. He was born with a caul, a fact that has probably enhanced his reputation as a healer Micheletti Sloane, H.

Natural History of Jamaica. Alder Alnus spp. The British species of alder, Alnus glutinosa, has not been prominent in folk medicine. Its leaves have been placed in shoes to prevent tired, sore feet and also have been used in treating burns Salhouse, Norfolk, pers. Parson Woodforde, in his diary for March 7, , reported using alder bark steeped in water for his unspecied ailment Woodforde Society , 3, 71 , and recommended it as a springtime tonic. There are reports of using alder cones boiled in water for the treatment of gout Vickery 2 , while in the nineteenth century a piece of alder wood was carried as a preventive against rheumatism Gomme Otherwise, British uses of alder are nonmedicinal.

In North America the picture is quite different. There are ten species of alder native to North America. The range of uses for them in folk medicine is wide. The use of the tags conelike fruits of tag alder, Alnus serrulata, for treating chills has been reported in Carolina Brown , 6: Alder bark ointment has been used for treating itching Brendle and Unger 61 and burns Bergen In colonial days, alder bark was used to prevent scarring from smallpox Lick and Brendle The water in which alder buds have been steeped was drunk for rheumatism Bergen To help teething in children, a necklace was made from threaded pieces of alder twig Browne For coughs a tea was made from swamp alder bark Brewster Red alder bark is recorded as a.

References Akana, Akaiko. Hawaiian Herbs of Medicinal Value. Honolulu: Pacic Book House. Bancroft, E. Barton, B. Quoted in Heinerman Descourtilz, M. Flore Pittoresque et Me dical Des Antilles. Paris, Du Pratz, M. London: T. Becket, Heinerman, John. New York: Kensington, Macfadyen, J. Flora of Jamaica.

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London: Longmans Green, Matthews, Holly. North American Folk Heal-. More generally, alders have had a reputation in North America as blood puriers Meyer 41 , to be taken as a springtime tonic Meyer Alder bark has also been used, combined with elder bark and wild cherry bark, for eczema Meyer In the Native American tradition, the uses of alder have been very numerous Moerman The bruised leaves of the tag alder are reported to have been used by Native Americans as a poultice on the breasts to stop the ow of milk Meyer Willard reports a wide range of uses in the Rockies and neighboring territories.

The use by Native Americans of alder leaves for sore and aching feet echoes that in Britain. The leaves were placed by a wife under her husbands hat as a cure for grumpiness and hangover. As in Britain, alder leaves were used in treatment of burns. In addition, the alder tree in North America has yielded remedies for a very wide range of other complaints: the leaves were used to deter eas, the fresh bark to treat rashes, including that from poison ivy; a decoction of the bark was used by the Kutenai Indians to regulate menstruation, and by the Blackfoot for treating tuberculosis; in addition it was used for constipation, jaundice and diarrhea.

The inner bark was used for wounds and skin ulcers Willard Four different species of alder have been recorded in use for treating toothache and for cleaning teeth Turner, Thompson, and Thompson et al. Mixed with dried bumblebees, alder has been used to help childbirth Densmore References Bergen, Fanny D. Black, Meredith Jean. Ottawa: National Museums of Canada.

Mercury Series 65, Brendle, Thomas R. Folk Medicine of the Pennsylvania Germans. The Non-Occult Cures. Proceedings of the Pennsylvania German Society 45, Brewster, Paul G. Folk Cures and Preventatives from Southern Indiana. Southern Folklore Quarterly 3 : Brown, Frank C. Collection of North Carolina Folklore. Browne, Ray B. Popular Beliefs and Practices from Alabama. Folklore Studies 9. Uses of Plants by the Chippewa Indians. Gomme, G. London, Lick, David E. Proceedings and Addresses of the Pennsylvania German Society 33 Turner, Nancy J. Thompson, and M.

Terry Thompson et al. Victoria: Royal British Columbia Museum, Aloe vera Vickery, Roy. Willard, Terry. Woodforde, Parson James. Ansford Diary. Edited by R. Winstanley, Parson Woodforde Society, Aloe vera This is an African plant, used in ofcial medicine by the ancient Egyptians as well as in classical Greek and ancient Chinese medicine. It was introduced into North America by missionaries and gradually became a familiar plant of domestic medicine throughout North and South America. Its main use in ofcial medicine was as a purgative, but in folk medicine it has been used primarily as a skin healer, and its fame has spread for the treatment of burns the gel from the scraped leaves is used.

Along with many other people, Columbus confused aloe with the rather similar-looking but unrelated agave, which he found growing as a native in the New World. The true aloe reached Mexico shortly after the conquest Valde s and Flores 86 , when Hernandez reported that the Aztecs used it in treating various skin conditions. The aloe now thrives throughout North and South America.

In modern times in the American and Mexican West it has been used for treating a variety of skin conditions, such as dermatitis and boils Kay It has even been used in the treatment of radiation burns Meyer As its popularity has increased, extravagant claims have been made for the plant as a panacea. At least some of these claims are justiable in the light of modern research Chevallier 57 , and it is now widely used by herbalists and as an over-the-counter medication in.

Claimed to be one of the most widely used healing plants in the world, Aloe vera has been used primarily to treat a variety of skin conditions, such as burns, dermatitis, and boils. It has been claimed to be one of the most widely used healing plants in the world Bloomeld 2. Although most of these uses belong to modern herbalism, the plant has been used to some extent in folk medicine too. It has been applied to rashes, burns, warts, insect stings, and taken internally for stomach ache Anderson Recently Aloe vera has become a popular constituent of many cosmetic as well as herbal preparations in Britain as well as in North America.

It is one of a number of plants to achieve fame in the modern secondary return to herbalism among the middle class. References Anderson, John Q. Texas Folk Medicine. Austin: Encino Press, Bloomeld, Frena. Miracle Plants: Aloe Vera. London: Century, Chevallier, Andrew. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. London: Dorling Kindersley, Valde s, Javier, and Hilda Flores. Comentarios a la Obra de Francisco Herna ndez. References Brown, Frank C. Hand and Jeannine E. Gardner, Gerald Brosseau. British Charms, Amulets and Talismans.

Folk-Lore 53 : Hoke, N. Journal of American Folklore 5 : Koch, William E. Folklore from Kansas: Beliefs and Customs. Lawrence: Regent Press, Kentucky Superstitions. Folk-Lore from Maryland. Memoirs of the American Folklore Society 18 Amber This is the translucent golden resin obtained from coniferous trees now largely extinct. It was credited with the power to ease depression, when worn next to the skin. It was also considered to be an aphrodisiac.

In Scotland amber beads were a traditional gift by the parents to a bride, to make her irresistible to her new husband Souter Amber was also rubbed onto a stye to heal it Souter In England necklaces of amber beads were used as amulets to prevent whooping cough, croup, and asthma Gardner In North American folk medicine amber beads were worn both to prevent and cure a range of ailments, especially goitre Koch Other ailments for which amber was used include asthma Brown , 6: , croup Whitney and Bullock 92 , teething Thomas and Thomas , and weak eyes Hoke In contrast to the belief in Scotland, it has been reported from Salt Lake City that an amber bead necklace will prevent desire Cannon Amulet An object that is carried to avert illness or misfortune.

In folk medicine it sometimes represents the vestiges of an earlier remedy. For instance, potatoes were carried in the pocket to ward off rheumatism in twentieth-century Norfolk Hateld 47 ; in the eighteenth century in Scotland the potato was used as an actual remedy for rheumatism. A necklace of horse chestnuts, made by a child who has never suffered from rheumatism, has been worn to prevent rheumatism Mundford Primary School, Norfolk, unpub.

Rose hips were carried against piles Hateld For toothache, carrying an amulet of a hazelnut with two kernels was recommended in Suffolk. A necklace of pieces of gwort Scrophularia sp. Nine pieces of elder cut from between two knots was used as an amulet against epilepsy Black Beads made from peony root were used in Sussex as an amulet against epilepsy and to help in teething Thiselton Dyer In Cambridgeshire, carrying rabbit teeth or bones, or a hedgehogs skull, was practiced for toothache Porter 46 , while in Sussex, carrying a paw cut from a live mole was recommended Black Samuel Pepys reported in his diary for March the success of the hares foot amulet he carried against cramp Radford and Radford Spiders were worn for ague Black In Sussex during the Great Plague, amulets of toad poison were carried Souter An alternative was to wear an arsenic-containing amulet around the neck Miller The stump of the umbilical cord was used in East Anglia as an amulet Newman and Newman Colored threads served as amulets.

For lumbago, red and white silk threads were recommended Wright and Lovett , An example from the s of the use of the cure of the threads is cited by Beith Beith Black threads were used for treating sprains Black Small stones credited with healing powers were handed down from one generation to another in Scotland.

A stone was in some cases regarded as a specic cure for one ailmentfor instance, the adder stones of the Scottish Highlands Beith A tooth-shaped stone might be valued as a cure for toothache Guthrie Plate VI, opp. In the countess of Newcastle was offered an aetites stone to wear to ease labor pains Thomas Birthstones have traditionally been given to a child according to its birth month to protect it against illness and other evil Souter A necklace of amber was. Stones with holes through them are widely regarded as lucky in general and as likely to avert misfortune; in this way they overlap with talismans.

The concretions from goat intestine, known as bezoar, were prized until the late eighteenth century in ofcial Western medicine as well as folk medicine. Eel-skin garters were regarded in Suffolk as a preventive and treatment for rheumatism Porter 52 ; in Scotland, they were used as amulets against cramp Black In North American folk medicine, to ward off illness in general, the wearing of a gold chain or a copper chain, a dime, or sows teeth or owls claws have all been recommended Puckett To bring on labor, a pregnant woman was advised to wear asafoetida around the neck and put rabbits foot under the head when she slept Brown 6: 7.

Carrying a shell during labor was another recommendation De Lys Teething children were given necklaces of the bean called Jobs tears Coix lacrymajobi Meyer Various amulets have been used against rheumatism. As in Britain, a potato carried in the pocket has. Amulet Frazer, Sir James George. London: Macmillan, Grumbine, E. Guthrie, Douglas. A History of Medicine. London: Thomas Nelson, Lyon, William S. Encyclopedia of Native American Healing. Miller, Joseph L. The Healing Gods or Medical Superstitions. West Virginia Medical Journal 29 : Mundford Primary School Project, Norfolk, , unpublished.

Newman, Barbara, and M. Some Birth Customs in East Anglia. Folklore 50 : Porter, Enid. The Folklore of East Anglia. London: Batsford, Puckett, Newbell Niles. Hand, Anna Casetta, Sondra B. Boston: G. Hall, Radford, E. Radford, ed. Christina Hole. Encyclopaedia of Superstitions. London: Book Club Associates, Cure Craft. Thiselton Dyer, T. The Folk-Lore of Plants. Facsimile reprint of edition by Llanerch, Dyfed, In Newfoundland, a haddock n has been used as a rheumatism amulet English In Lebanon County, the cents placed on the eyelids of the dead to keep them shut were subsequently used as amulets for rheumatism Grumbine Amulets used for fevers include birch catkins Betula sp.

Brendle and Unger 83 and Solomons seal Polygonatum sp. In the Native American tradition, amulets made of bone and shell, or of maize, or of wood, were used by Shamans during healing ceremonies Lyon 99, , An ivory doll was held by Inuit women in labor Micheletti The Alasakan eskimo medicine man sometimes carried the soul of a sick child in an amulet for safekeeping Frazer Examples of amulets still in use today are copper bracelets, worn against rheumatism, and hares paws, made into costume jewelry, worn to protect against illness and evil.

Black, William George. London: Folklore Society, De Lys, Claudia. A Treasury of American Superstitions. New York: Philosophical Library, English, L. Historic Newfoundland. Johns: Newfoundland Tourist Development Division, Anemia Thomas, Keith. Harmondsworth: Penguin, Wintemberg, W.

Journal of American Folklore 31 : Wright, A. Folk-Lore 19 : Anemia This was not always recognized as a distinct ailment but a number of remedies for blood disorders in general clearly involve anemia. Water from a so-called chalybeate well rich in iron salts was one such remedy. In Dumfriesshire, Scotland, for example, there is a well whose water was particularly recommended for womens ailments Beith In Ireland too, chalybeate waters were valued for anemia Logan Water from the forge, in which iron had been quenched was another folk remedy for anemia Souter One lady in Cambridgeshire made pills for anemia consisting of dust from the anvil and powdered dandelion root rolled in butter Porter Until fty years ago, children suffering from what was then called pernicious anemia were given raw liver to eat J.

This remedy can be traced back to the writings of Hippocrates Raycroft The most widely used plant remedy for anemia is nettle Allen and Hateld, in press , still recommended today by herbalists for its high iron content. Many of the tonics used in folk medicine were described as blood puriers, and some of these too were probably useful in treating anemia. Into this category come burdock Arctium lappa and yarrow Achillea millefolium.

Dandelion tea Taraxacum ofcinale , generally regarded as a tonic, was used in the East Anglian fens for anemia Chamberlain. Carrot has traditionally been recommended for anemia Souter In Sussex, beetroot was used to treat anemia Brew, n. In North American folk medicine, some of the same remedies for anemia have been traced. Water out of a rusty can was recommended in New Mexico Moya Red beets were regarded in Pennsylvania as blood makers Brendle and Unger 39 compare with the remedy from Sussex, England, above.

Dandelion leaf tea was used to treat anemia in West Virginia Mason A strange ritual of bleeding an anaemic child, diluting the blood with water, and giving it back as a drink, is reported by Brown Brown , 6: In Native American practice, a large number of plants were used for the blood Moerman Some at least of these were targeted specically at anemia.

Dandelion tea, for example, was used widely e. Herrick for this purpose, as was sarsaparilla. Oregongrape Mahonia repens was taken to enrich Hart 18 or thicken the blood Nickerson References Allen, David E. Portland, OR: Timber Press, in press. Beith, Mary. Brew, Barbara. Grandmothers Remedies.

Privately published pamphlet, East Grinstead. Copy in Folklore Society archives, E Chamberlain, Mary. Old Wives Tales. London: Virago, Hart, Jeff. Montana Native Plants and Early Peoples. Helena: Montana Historical Society Press, Logan, Patrick. Dublin: Talbot Press, Mason, James. Home Remedies in West Virginia. West Virginia Folklore 7 : 27 Moya, Benjamin S. Masters thesis, University of New Mexico, Then two parts by weight of alco- hol are taken, the pulp thoroughly mixed with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of the alcohol added.

After stirring the whole well it is poured into a well- stoppered bottle and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. The tincture, separated by straining and filtering, should have a very light greenish- orange color by transmitted light, a slightly astringent taste, and an acid reaction. No special analysis has been made to determine an active principle. A farther proving may develop some symptoms in the direc- tion of a slight irritative cough with expectoration. Description of Plate 2. Whole plant, Binghamton, N. Pistil enlargedj. Stem erect, glabrous, thick, succulent, hollow, and branching ; juice acrid and blis- tering.

Leaves thickish, the upper sessile or nearly so, the lobes oblong-linear and nearly entire ; stem-leaves 3-lobed, rounded ; root-leaves 3-parted, but not to the base, the lobes obtusely cut and toothed ; petioles of the lower leaves long, and sheathing at their dilated bases. Flotvers small, pale-yellow; sepals reflexed ; petals scarcely exceeding the sepals. Fruit an oblong, cylindrical head ; carpels numer- ous, barely mucronate. Leaves mostly radical, those of the stems alternate and situated at the base of the branches, variously lobed, cut, or dissected, seldom entire.

Liflorescence solitary or some- times corymbed ; flowers yellow, rarely white. Sepals 5, rarely only 3, not append- aged, deciduous, and imbricated in the bud. Petals 5, or often more, flat, with a little pit, pore, gland, or nectariferous scale at the base inside.

Stamens numer- ous ; filaments filiform. Style short, subulate. Fi'tiit a cylindrical or rounded head, composed of numerous carpels ; achcnia mosdy flattened and pointed by the remains of the style ; seeds solitary, erect, rarely suspended. It grows in marshy tracts and wet ditches, and blossoms from June to August. The general and medical history of the species is generic, they having been used indiscriminately, R. Galen, Paulus, and the physicians of Arabia, all speak highly of the plants as powerful escharotics ; and the Bedouins use them as rubefacients.

Gerarde says: "There be divers sorts or kinds of these pernitious herbes comprehended under the name of Ranunculus or Crowfoote, whereof most are very dangerous to be taken into the body, and therefore they require a very exquisite moderation, with a most exact and due manner of tempering; not any of them are to be taken alone by themselves, because they are of a most violent force, and therefore have the great nede of correction.

The knowledge of these plants is as necessarle to the phisition as of other herbes, to the end they may shun the same, as Scribonius Largus saith, and not take them ignorantly, or also if necessitie at any time require that they may use them, and that with some deliberation and special choice and with their proper correctives. This practice we noted only a few days since, when called to see a child of a new-settled German family in our city; the little one's wrists were bound up in the leaves and branches of R.

In former practice the plants were used, in view of external stimulation, in rheumatism especially sciatic , hip disease, hemicrania, and in local spasmodic and fi. Withering, in speak- ing of R. In Northern Persia the young tubers, leaves, stems, and blossoms of R. Jicaria, Linn. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp thoroughly mixed with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of the alcohol added. After having stirred the whole well, it is poured into a well-stoppered bottle, and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place.

The tincture is then separated by straining and filtering. Thus prepared it has a clear reddish-orange color by transmitted light ; an acrid odor and taste ; and an acid reaction. Anemonol, or Oil of Raniciiciilus. Prof Frehling, who afterward examined into the subject, says, " this acid cannot be formed from anemonin by simply assumption with water. The acrid action is shown by a corrosive gastritis and by hypersemia of the kidneys, more particularly their cortical substance.

Anemonin causes similar symptoms, but is followed by no convulsions, nor does it irritate sufficiently to corrode the organs, as in the oil. A man, at Bevay, France, swallowed a glassful of the juice, which had been kept lor some time; he was seized in four hours with violent colic and vomiting, and died the second day. X Die Vergift mil Ranunkelol, Antiiioiiin, etc. II Orfila, Tax. Sietiis at first upright then ascending, some forming long runners in summer. Peduncles furrowed. Calyx spreading. Petals obovate, bright yellow, much longer than the sepals.

Fruit a globular head of numerous carpels ; achenia flat, strongly margined, and furnished with a stout, straight beak. In woods that tend to dryness the plant is erect and shows no tendency to spread much by runners ; but in low, wet ditches along swamp lands its growth is often prodigious. This species is one of the lesser in acridity, and its medical uses have been simply generical, it being generally used only when the more powerful species could not be procured ; its history, therefore, will be covered by R.

The juice is then mingled, by brisk agitation, with an equal part by weight of alcohol, and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. The tincture formed by filtration should have a brownish-green color by transmitted light, a slightly acrid taste, and an acid reaction. Description of Plate 4. End of a flowering stem, Ithaca, N. Leaf forms. Section of a carpel. Leaves all ternately divided to the very base, especially noticeable in the radical ones, all appearing more or less pinnate ; leaflets short, cuneate, cleft and toothed, the lateral sessile, the termi- nal stalked, all 3-parted.

Petals 5 or more, round, cuneate at the base, bright glossy yellow, much longer than the calyx. Calyx reflexed. Fruit in a globular head ; achenia ovoid, flattish, and tipped with a very short beak. Read description of Ranunculus, under R. It blossoms northward from May to July. This species, being one of the more acrid of the genus, and of frequent occur- rence in the East, has been used, like R.

The resulting tincture has a clear, light yellow color by transmitted light, a slighdy sweetish then acrid taste, and a strongly acid reaction. Early English practitioners used the bulb to produce vesication when a "last- ino- blister" was judged necessary, but were very chary of prescribing the drug internally, so great was their dread of its properties.

Four persons who partook of the bulbs, boiled in a chicken-broth, suffered from violent burning in the hypogastric region, great anxiety about the region of the heart, pressure at the pit of the stomach, with painful soreness of that organ when pressed. A lady who applied the bruised plant to the chest as a counter-irritant, became ill-humored, fretful, cross and disposed to quarrel, and suffered from soreness and smarting of the eyelashes some time before its action was felt at the region nearest the application.

Violent attacks of epilepsy are recorded as having been induced by this plant ; a sailor who inhaled the fumes of the burning plant was attacked with this disease for the first time in his life ; it returned again in two weeks, passed into cachexia, nodous gout, headache, and terminated in death. Allen, show a decided irritant action upon the brain and spinal cord, as well as the mucous membranes generally.

Description of Plate 5. Whole plant, Salem, Mass. Longitudinal section of achenium. Fiira, I. Pure Mat. Ranunculus Acris unn. Root fibrous, from a sHghtly tiiber-Hke crown. Stem subcyHndrical, hollow, hairy, and branching above. Leaves 3-divided, the divisions all sessile, 3-parted, and clothed with more or less rimd hairs ; seo-menis of the lower leaves cut into Ian- o ' o ceolate, closely-crowded lobes ; of the upper linear, and sometimes entire ; petioles of the radicle and lower stem leaves long and hairy, upper cauline leaves some- times sessile, hiflorescejice axillary and terminal ; flowers nearly as large as those of R.

Calyx spreading, villous, much shorter than the corolla. Petals obovate, bright yellow. Filaments short ; anthers incurved. Fruit a. Read description of the genus, under Ranunculus scelera- tus, 3 ; and the natural order, under Pulsatilla Nuttalliana, i. It flowers from June until August. The medical and general history, and the chemistry and action, of the differ- ent species of Ranunculus are generic rather than specific.

I give a digest under R. The juice is then, by rapid succussion, mixed with an equal part by weight of alcohol, and allowed to stand eight days, in a well-stoppered bottle, in a dark, cool place. The tincture, separated by filtration, has a brownish-orange color by trans- mitted light, a biting, then astringent taste, and an acid reaction. Description of Plate 6. Whole plant, Ithaca, N. Root a bundle of coarse and closely fasciculated fibers. Siem erect, somewhat quadrilateral, furrowed, hollow, thick, and juicy, branched above.

Leaves alternate, large, orbicular, cordate, or reniform, finely crenate or entire ; petioles of the radical leaves long, those of the cauline about equal in length to the width of the leaf; stipules quite large, withering after the expansion of the leaf, which they cover in the bud. Liflorcsceiice corymbose ; flowers large and regular.

Sepals 56, petaloid, broadly ovate, imbricate in sestivation. Petals wanting. Stamens numerous ; filaments about the length of the anthers; anthers large, innate, and extrorse. Pistils ; styles nearly or quite absent ; stigmas forming blunt, recurved, mucro- nations to the ovaries. Fritit a spreading whorl ; follicles latterly compressed ; seeds numerous, oblong, purplish, furnished with a prominent raphe, and arranged in a double series.

Read description of the Order under Pulsatilla Nuttalliana, 1. J I have known American physicians who claimed th,at they made their tincture of Calendula from flowers gathered in their own neighborhoods Caltha ; this error arose from tlie common name of calendula being marigold. Calendula officinalis, Linn. The plant is extensively gathered in early spring, and cooked for " greens," making one of our most excellent pot-herbs ; the pickled flower-buds are mentioned as a fine substitute for capers. The fresh plant is very acrid, so much so that cattle will not eat of it.

Rafinesque asserts that cattle browsing upon it die in conse- quence of an inflammation of the stomach. The medical history of this herb is very sparse, and of no consequence ; it has been used in cough syrups, which would, without doubt, have been fully as efficacious without it. The expressed juice is then, by brisk succussion, mingled with an equal part by weight of alcohol. This mixture is allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place.

The tincture, separated from the above mass by filtration, has a clear, orange- brown color by transmitted light, a sweet, then somewhat acrid taste, and a neutral reaction. Tannin is present in appreciable quantity, the tincture responding quickly to the tests with acetate of lead and chloride of iron. Description of Plate 7. End of branch, from Binghamton, N.

Section of flower. Achenium enlarged. Section of ovary enlarged. Section of stem. Rhizome thick and woody. Stem smooth, usually a little inclined to branch above. Leaves alternate, compound, the leaflets sharply serrate ; those of the stem nearly sessile and palmately parted ; those of the root glabrous, long petioled and pedately divided into from 7 to 15 lanceolate, acute lobes.

Calyx persistent ; sepals 5, roundish- ovate, veiny, petaloid, imbricated in the bud. Petals 8 to 10, very small, cyathi- form, irregularly 2-lipped, all shorter than the stamens. Stamens indefinite. Pistils 2, to 10, sessile; stigmas orbicular. Fjniit a cluster of sessile, coriaceous pods, all cohering at their bases; seeds numerous. On account of its general rarity, this species has had but litde use in medicine, its place being supplied by either H. Green Hellebore has, however, been somewhat used as a drastic and hydragogue cathartic in dropsies ; an emmenagogue in amenorrhoea ; a vermi- fuge in children afflicted with lumbricoids; as a nervine in mania and melan- cholia ; and an anti-spasmodic in epilepsy.

Its principal field, however, has been in veterinary medication, for animals afflicted with lice or lumbrici For die rea- son given above, the root is no longer officinal in the pharmacopoeias. Helleborin,t C. Husemann 1S64 from the green, fatty matter e. It resulted as shining, colorless, concen- tric needles, tasteless when dry, but acrid and burning in alcoholic solution. When boiled with zinc chloride, Helleborin breaks down into sugar and Helleborcsin as follows: Helleborin.

When boiled with a dilute mineral acid, it breaks down into sugar and Hclle- boretin, as follows : Helleborein. Helleboric Acid. The action of the Hellebores in general should be consulted in connection with this species. Descripiiox of Plate 8. Top of plant, from Sellersville, Pa. A mature lower leaf. Fruiting carpel. Rhizome thick, sarcous, oblong, irregular and knotted, having a yellowish-brown, thin bark, and a bright-yellow interior; rootlets numerous, scat- tered, coriaceous fibres.

Stem simple, subcylindrical, thick, erect and very hairy, surrounded, at its point of issuance from the rootstalk, by several oblong, sheathing, scaphoid, greenish-yellow, leafy bracts. Leaves 2, alternate, near the summit of the plant, orbicular-cordate at the base, palmately five- to seven-lobed, the lobes doubly serrate, acute, veiny ; attaining, when full grown during the fruiting season, a width of from 4 to 10 inches.

The root sometimes puts off an accessory or root-leaf which answers to the characteristics of the stem-leaves, with the one exception, that it is petiolate while they are sessile. PediDule about i inch long ; inflorescence — when fully expanded — a single, greenish-white, apetalous, asepalous flower. Sepals 3, pale-rose color, caducous. Petals none. Stamens numerous ; filaments linear or linear-spatulate ; antJicrs oval, innate. Frtiit a succulent, globose berry, compounded of many minia- ture one- to two-seeded drupes ; appearing like an enlarged red- raspberry.

Seeas inversely egg-shaped, nearly black and glossy ; embryo basal, very small ; albumen sarcoid and oily. It seeks the rich soil of shady woods, and moist places at the edge of wooded lands, flowering from April to May, and fruiting in July. The American aborigines valued the root highly as a tonic, stomachic, and application to sore eyes and general ulcerations, as well as a yellow dye for their clothing and implements of warfare.

The officinal preparations in the U. After stirring the whole well, it is poured into a well-stoppered bottle, and allowed to remain eight days in a dark, cool place. The tincture is then poured off, strained and filtered, and presents the following physical properties : a reddish-orange color, by transmitted light, staining everything with which it comes in contact, a deep yellow color ; a persistent bitter, then burning taste ; no distinguishing odor, and a slightly acid reaction.

Mahla of Chicago proved this alkaloid identical with that obtained from Berberis Am. Hydrastia, C. Durand Am. Lloyd Am. He decides that this yellowishness Is not due to berberlna. The crystals when viewed separately are in the form of brilliant, yellowish-white, glossy, quadran- gular prisms, becoming opaque when dry. Xanthopuccina, a third alkaloid, was determined by Herm. Lerchen Am. Hydrastis contains, beside the above-mentioned bodies, a green fixed oil of a disagreeable odor and taste ; a little volatile oil, to which the odor of the root Is due ; a black, resinous substance Lloyd ; albumen, sugar, starch, a fatty resin and lo per cent, of mineral matters Herm.

If per- sisted in, it causes severe ulceration of any surface it may touch ; and a catarrhal inflammation of mucous surfaces, followed by extreme dryness and fission. It causes also a catarrhal inflammation of the mucous linings of the hepatic ducts and gall-bladder — showing in an icteric hue of the skin — and a similar condition of the bladder, catarrhal cystitis. Description of Plate 9. Sepal somewhat enlarged. Stamen " " 3. Pistil soniewl'iat enlarged. Whole plant from Newfield, N. Root somewhat similar to that of cimicifuga, but neither as odorous, dark in color, nor as large.

Sient erect, nearly smooth. Leaves large, ternately decompound ; leaflets ovate, acutely cleft, and dentate or in- cisely serrate. Inflorescence a short, terminal ovate-oblong, simple raceme ; flowers creamy-white, sometimes by abortion declinous ; pedicles becoming pink, and thick- ened in fruit, until they are equal in size to the common peduncle. Sepals 4 to 5 petaloid, early deciduous. Petals 3 to 9, small, slender and spatulate, their tips either truncate or emarginate, their bases converted into short claws.

Stamens numerous; filaments white, slender; anthers innate, introrse. Pistil simple, solitary, with a sulcus at the insertion of the parietal placenta ; stigma sessile, 2-lobed. Fruit a cluster of bluish-white, many-seeded berries or carpels ; seeds smooth, compressed, and horizontal. It flowers in May and ripens its pretty china-like fruit in October. This species, together with Actcea rubra red cohosh , has received the attention of many writers upon medical botany.

The two species vary principally in the color of the berries and thickness of the pedicles ; probably slightly only in their properties and action. They are, how- ever, widely different from Actcea racemosa, our Cimicifuga, and should under no circumstances be confounded with that drug. Just how much our species of Actaea differ from the European Actcea spicata, Linn. This much we know, that the American species are much milder in their properties. Rafinesque says the roots are repellant, nervine, and used for debility in Canada.

Then two parts by weight of alcohol are to be taken, the pulp thoroughly mixed with one- sixth part of it, and the rest of the alcohol added. After mixing well, pour the whole into a well-stoppered bottle, and allow it to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. The tincture is then separated by decanting, straining and filtering. Description of Plate io.

Encyclopedia of Folk Medicine

Flower, showing calyx. Expanded flower oi Actcea rubra. Horizontal section of ovary enlarged.

Top of plant, Ithaca, N. Rootstock thick, blackish, successively knotted and fringe-ringed, whitish-yellow internally, with a ring of cuneiform wood-bundles pointing inward; rootlets long, simple, and uniform, a section under a lens shows the cuneiform- bundles arranged like a cross. Stem smooth, angular, or turrowed. Leaves alter- nate, tri-ternately divided, the lowermost almost radical, very large and ample, the - petiole at its base almost as large as the stem ; leaflets various on the same petiole, simple, bifid, and trifid, all ovate-oblong, cut serrate.

Inflorescence of very long, simple, or compound, virgate, inclined, upper-axillary or terminal racemes ; flowers scattered, foetid, creamy-white. Sepals , petal-like, scaphoid, early deciduous. Petals [Staviinodia , very small, long clawed, and 2-horned or forked ; apices antherose.

Stavicns numerous; filaments slender, club-shaped, creamy-white; anthers innate, introrse, yellow. Pistil solitary, simple ; ovary ovoid, sessile ; style short ; stigma simple, inclined to be lateral, the centre somewhat cylindrically de- pressed. Frnit numerous, dry, ovoid or globose, dehiscent carpels, arranged upon a raceme from i to 3 feet in length, and retaining each its stigma in the form of an oblique beak ; seeds semi-discoid, smooth, horizontal, and compressed. A Siljerian species being used as a vermifuge. If written blaclt-snake root the name miglit be applied, but does not apply.

J Two other plants are known by this name, viz. II This name properly belongs to many species of Nabalus Composite. When woods in its favorite localities are at all dense, the plant will be found only in the borders. Black cohosh was a favorite remedy among all tribes of the aborigines, being largely used by them in rheumatism, disorders of menstruation, and slow parturition.

It was also used as a remedy against the bites of venomous snakes, with what success history does not relate, but we can easily judge. The plant was first made known by Pluckenet in ; Colden recommended its use in J, and Dr. Garden in In England its use began in i In regard to chorea. Wood statesf that he ad- ministered the drug in a case, which rapidly recovered under its use after the failure of purgatives and metallic tonics.

In convulsions occurring periodically, connected with uterine disorder. Wood also derived the happiest effects from its use. In inflammatory rheumatism Dr. Johnson used the remedy with "the best results, the disease disappearing in from 2 to 10 days"; he says, "the more acute the disease the more prompt and decided will be the action of the drug. Williams says : "Indians and quacks recommend its use in rheumatism," etc.

The statement of Dr. In all the above uses except mayhap those concerning the lungs, we have proven its application trustworthy. Its usefulness in phthisis when given in proper dosage is simply to palliate the cough through its action upon the nerve centres. It will be found in most cases to act with far more constant success in females than in males, as its action upon the female economy is marked and distinctive.

The resulting tincture is almost opaque ; in thin layers it has a deep olive-green color by transmitted light ; it retains the peculiar odor of the root ; its taste is at first peculiar, soon becoming very acrid and bitter, and its reaction acid. X Clapp, Cat. Ass'n, , p. II Kept. Med Bot. Ass'n, 1S49, p. W Cimicifuga and Geranium maculatum. An alkaloid has, however, been determined by T. This alkaloid is a neutral crystalline body, having an intensely acrid taste, and is soluble in alcohol, chloro- form, and ether, slightly also in water.

It has been determined also in the " resinoid. The chorea-like spasmodic action following the exhibition of the drug is of two types, one having apparently a rheumatic basis, the other uterine ; the latter is most common, as the choreas curable by this drug will be found aggravated or originating at the age of puberty or during men- struation. It causes rheumatic pains resembling those of torticollis, lumbago, and especially pleurodynia, sympathetic angina pectoris, and rheumatoid gout.

The drug seems also to cause irritation of the uterus directly, especially when this irri- tation is rheumatoid in its character, and in consequence the individual under the effects of the drug will present symptoms of epileptiform or hysterical spasms, restlessness and jactitation of muscles, dysmenorrhoea or amenorrhoea, cephalalgia, infra-mammary pain, etc. In pregnancy it often causes abor- tion, and in labor will stimulate the uterus and cause rapid, painless expansion of the parts. According to Dr. Chapman it produces free nausea, with abundant expectoration, followed by nervous trembling, vertigo, and remarkable slowness of the pulse.

Description ok Plate ii. Part of the summit of a plant showing one of the smaller racemes, Binghamton, N. Lower portion of stem, with a part of the root showing the remains of the growth of the two pre- vious seasons. Portion of one of the smaller leaves. Section of the root. A staminodium enlarged. Section of pistil enlarged. Section of capsule showing seeds. X Tilghman, Jour. Jones, Am. Davis, period, cit. Jones, Proi. Ass'ii, 1S65, p. Conard, arl. Btids conical, silky; leaves all scattered, oblong, oval, or ovate-lanceolate, obtuse, thickish, shining green above and bluish- white beneath, evergreen southward, deciduous northward.

Inflorescence solitary and terminal ; floiuers globular, white, very fragrant.

The Many Uses of Pokeweed

Sepals 3, oblong, scaphoid. Petals 6 to 9, erect, broadly ovate, and narrowed at the base. Stamens numerous, imbricated; filaments short; anthers long, adnate, introrse. Pistils coherent in a mass aggregated upon the elongated torus. Fruit oblong, conical, small, and rather ligneous ; carpels many, dehiscing by a longitudinal dorsal suture ; seeds I to 2 in each carpel, baccate, vermilion, hanging from the bursted carpels by an extenuate thread composed of spiral vessels ; endocai'p bony.

Flowers single, large, polypetalous, the calyx and corolla colored alike, in aestivation generally imbricate in 3 or more rows of 3, all deciduous. Stamens numerous, hypogynous ; filaments short ; anthers long, adnate, introrse. Pistils many, coherent, generally closely packed together over the prolonged receptacle ; styles short or none ; stigmas simple. Fruit a fleshy, or dry cone, composed of many coherent carpels. Seeds I to 2 in each carpel, anatropous ; albumen fleshy ; embryo minute, basal.

Britton observed, in Manahawken Swamp, Ocean Co. The Javanese Aroviadciidron clcgans has a native reputation as a carminative, stomachic, and antihysteric ; and the wood of Manglietia glaiica is supposed to be antiputrefactive, therefore it is used by the inhabitants of the island for the manufacture of coffins. Several other genera furnish aromatic and bitter tonic barks, many of which are used by the natives of the countries in which they grow.

At first it keeps to the seaboard, but gradually extends inland the farther south it is found. It grows in swamps, and expands its fragrant flowers from May southward to June and August. The use of the fresh bark, cones, and seeds of this species, together with those of M. The fresh bark has long been considered as a bitter, aromatic tonic, febrifuge, diaphoretic, antiperiodic and gentle laxative, in acute coryzas, bronchial catarrhs, chronic rheumatism, dyspepsia, remittent and inter- mittent fevers and typhoid states, being deemed contraindicated, however, if inflammation be present.

The odor of the cut flowers, especially at night in a close room, is very penetrating, unpleasant, and to some insupportable, causing, in susceptible persons, a great oppression of the chest and vertigo. Barton " imputed to the odor the power of increasing the pain of inflammatory gout, and occasioning an exacerbation of a diurnal fever. The bark is still officinal in the U. After stirring the whole well, it is poured into a well-stoppered vial and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place.

The tincture thus prepared should, after filtration, have a deep brownish-red color by transmitted light, a per- fume much like the wilted flowers, an acrid and bitter taste, and an acid reaction. Barton, Med. The bark of M. Jones,f and T. Allen, J are : Great uneasiness and oppression of the chest, with an inability to expand the lungs, a feeling as if having swallowed a large bolus of unmasticated food which distressed the stomach, and a tendency to fainting.

Showing thus a dilation of the vascular system so commonly following the insufflation of strongly odorous flowers in susceptible persons. Magnolia certainly deserves a careful proving of the fresh bark and flowers ; the floicers alone can hardly add to our medicamentse while we have Cactus grandiflorus.

Description of Plate End of a flowering branch, Landisville, N. J Ehcvc. AsiiviiNA Triloba, Dunai. Bark smooth, grayish. Leaves long, thin, and membraneous, entire, oblong-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, and are covered with a rusty-hairiness upon the nether surface when first expanding, but soon become entirely glabrous, hifloresccnce solitary in the axils of the previous year's leaves ; jioivers dull purple, appearing with, or just before, the leaves. Sepals 3, ovate, much shorter than the petals. Petals 6, spreading, veiny, rounded-ovate, their upper third more or less recurved ; they are arranged in two rows, the outer larger, all enlarging after anthesis.

Pukeweed Soup

Stamens indefinite, arranged in a globular head, thus concealing the ovaries and styles. Pistils few, their stigmas projecting beyond the stamens than which they are longer. Fruits , developed from each flower, they are oblong, rounded, pulpy, several-seeded, and resemble in shape the shorter red bananas. Seeds oval, horizontal, flattish-compressed, and sur- rounded by a fleshy aril. Leaves alternate, entire, pinnate-veined, and usually punctate ; stipules wanting. Sepals 3, often connected at the base.

Petals 6, thick, arranged in two rows. Torus rounded, hypogynous ; stamens numerous or indefinite ; filaments very short, sometimes just perceptible ; anthers adnate, extrorse ; connectivum fleshy, somewhat quadrangular, often nectariferous. Pistils numerous, crowded, and sometimes coherent, especially in fruit; styles short or wanting ; stigmas sim- ple, capitellate. Fruit fleshy or pulpy ; seeds anatropous, one or more in each ovary; testa brittle ; embryo basal, minute; albumen hard, ruminated.

The Jamaica nutmeg [Monodora myristica is said to be similar to, but not so pungent as, the nutmeg of commerce [Myristica moschatd. Jamaica bit- terwood [Xylopia glabra is considered tonic and stimulant. It locates along streams where the soil is rich and frosts late.

This small tree is a native, especially of the Ohio valley, where it flowers from March to May, according to the season. The fruit, when ripe, is soft, sweet, and insipid, having a taste somev. It was greatly prized by the aborigines, — who eagerly sought anything edible in the vegetable world — and now is occasionally exposed for sale in city markets. When green they have a very unpleasant odor, and are only fit to eat after having been touched by frost, when they turn from yellowish-green to black, and become internally of the color and consistence of custard.

J It is claimed that they improve gready in size, taste, and succulency upon cultivation. Three other species : A. The former uses of this plant in medicine are of little or no importance. A tincture of the seed proves emetic ; the bark being bitter has been considered tonic and stimulant. The chemical properties and physiological action have never been — to my knowledge — determined. The tincture thus prepared is filtered off.

It has a clear, pale, canary color by transmitted light ; an astringent straw-like taste ; an odor somewhat like that of the red raspberry, and a slight acidity. All that is known of the medicinal power of this drug is a proving by Dr. J Whence the name " American Custard-apple," i Eisenboeg. Calyx and torus, after removal of the stamens. A stamen enlarged. Fruit and full-grown leaf. Seed and opened aril. Drawn from living specimens received from Ohio through the kindness of Mr.

Warder, son of the late Dr. John A.