nso.paris21.org/scripts/silme/casus-yer-belirleme.php The alternative view to the Golden Age of Tolerance is that Jews and Christians were severely restricted in Muslim Spain, by being forced to live in a state of 'dhimmitude'. A dhimmi is a non-Muslim living in an Islamic state who is not a slave, but does not have the same rights as a Muslim living in the same state. At times there were restrictions on practicing one's faith too obviously. Bell-ringing or chanting too loudly were frowned on and public processions were restricted. Many Christians in Spain assimilated parts of the Muslim culture.
Some learned Arabic, some adopted the same clothes as their rulers some Christian women even started wearing the veil ; some took Arabic names. Christians who did this were known as Mozarabs. The Muslim rulers didn't give their non-Muslim subjects equal status; as Bat Ye'or has stated, the non-Muslims came definitely at the bottom of society. Society was sharply divided along ethnic and religious lines, with the Arab tribes at the top of the hierarchy, followed by the Berbers who were never recognized as equals, despite their Islamization; lower in the scale came the mullawadun converts and, at the very bottom, the dhimmi Christians and Jews.
A Muslim must not massage a Jew or a Christian nor throw away his refuse nor clean his latrines. The Jew and the Christian are better fitted for such trades, since they are the trades of those who are vile. Not all the Muslim rulers of Spain were tolerant. Almanzor looted churches and imposed strict restrictions. The position of non-Muslims in Spain deteriorated substantially from the middle of the 11th century as the rulers became more strict and Islam came under greater pressure from outside. Christians were not allowed taller houses than Muslims, could not employ Muslim servants, and had to give way to Muslims on the street.
Christians could not display any sign of their faith outside, not even carrying a Bible. There were persecutions and executions. One notorious event was a pogrom in Granada in , and this was followed by further violence and discrimination as the Islamic empire itself came under pressure. As the Islamic empire declined, and more territory was taken back by Christian rulers, Muslims in Christian areas found themselves facing similar restrictions to those they had formerly imposed on others. But, on the whole, the lot of minority faith groups was to become worse after Islam was replaced in Spain by Christianity.
There were also cultural alliances, particularly in the architecture - the 12 lions in the court of Alhambra are heralds of Christian influences. The mosque at Cordoba, now converted to a cathedral is still, somewhat ironically, known as La Mezquita or literally, the mosque. The mosque was begun at the end of the 8th century by the Ummayyad prince Abd al Rahman ibn Muawiyah.
In the 10th century, Cordoba, the capital of Umayyad Spain, was unrivalled in both East and the West for its wealth and civilisation. One author wrote about Cordoba:. There were mosques and public baths spread throughout the city and its twenty-one suburbs. The streets were paved and lit There were bookshops and more than seventy libraries. Muslim scholars served as a major link in bringing Greek philosophy, of which the Muslims had previously been the main custodians, to Western Europe.
There were interchanges and alliances between Muslim and Christian rulers such as the legendary Spanish warrior El-Cid, who fought both against and alongside Muslims. How did Muslims, Jews and Christians interact in practice? Was this period of apparent tolerance underpinned by a respect for each other's sacred texts?
What led to the eventual collapse of Cordoba and Islamic Spain? And are we guilty of over-romanticising this period as a golden age of co-existence? Retrieved 28 November Bates In Jerrilynn D. Dodds ed. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Glick Retrieved 15 April Der Islam. Restle, David; Zaefferer, Dietmar eds.
Trends in Linguistics. Studies and Monographs. Sounds and systems: studies in structure and change. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
Archived PDF from the original on June 27, Only a few years after the Islamic conquest of Spain, Al-Andalus appears in coin inscriptions as the Arabic equivalent of Hispania. The traditionally held view that the etymology of this name has to do with the Vandals is shown to have no serious foundation.
The phonetic, morphosyntactic, and historical problems connected with this etymology are too numerous. Moreover, the existence of this name in various parts of central and northern Spain proves that Al-Andalus cannot be derived from this Germanic tribe. Undoubtedly, the name is of Pre-Indo-European origin. The parts of this compound anda and luz are frequent in the indigenous toponymy of the Iberian Peninsula. Caliphs and Kings: Spain, Routledge Library Editions: Muslim Spain. An additional 3, were picked up in Egypt. See R. The Legacy of Muslim Spain. The Journal of Economic History. Fairchild Islamic Gardens and Landscapes.
University of Pennsylvania Press. David's University Press etext. Jacob, James R. Jacob, , pages, pp. Simon and Schuster. Retrieved The Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Long Twentieth Century.
Presses de l'Universite du Quebec. The Oxford History of Mexico. Oxford University Press, US. Spain — A Society of Conflict Third ed. Stanford University Press. Grieve 19 March JHU Press. Harvey: Muslims in Spain, to Moorish Spain. University of California Press. Medina Mayrit: The Origins of Madrid. Algora Publishing.
The curve, moreover, makes possible a reasonable estimate of the religious distribution of the population. Assuming that there were seven million Hispano-Romans in the peninsula in and that the numbers of this segment of the population remained level through the eleventh century with population growth balancing out Christian migration to the north , then by there would have been approximately 2. At this point Christians still vastly outnumbered Muslims.
By , however, the number of indigenous Muslims would have risen to a majority of 5. Princeton University Press. Retrieved 24 November Schweitzer, Marvin Perry. Tauris , p. Cambridge University Press. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality. Retrieved 10 May Michael Gerli, Samuel G. Armistead eds. Medieval Iberia. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter link. Alfonso, Esperanza, NY: Routledge.
The Hidden Debt to Islamic Civilisation. Manchester: Bayt Al-Hikma Press. A Festschrift for Theo Vennemann , eds. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. In German Also available online: see External Links below. Calderwood, Eric. Harvard University Press Cohen, Mark. Al-Andalus: the art of Islamic Spain. Fernandez-Morera, Dario. NY: Intercollegiate Studies Institute. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Michael, ed. Medieval Iberia: An Encyclopedia. Hamilton, Michelle M.
Portnoy, and David A. Wacks, eds. Newark, Del. The Historical Practice in Diversity.
Berghahn Books. The Legacy of Muslim Spain , 2 vols. Kennedy, Hugh. Kraemer, Joel. Kenneth Seeskin. NY: Doubleday. In Spanish and Arabic. Also available in the public domain online, see External Links. Luscombe, David and Jonathan Riley-Smith, eds. The Formation of Al-Andalus , vol. Aldershot: Ashgate. Islam and the Arabs in Spanish scholarship: Sixteenth century to the present.
Leiden: Brill. Monroe, James T. Berkeley, Cal. Netanyahu, Benzion. An Islamic History of Europe. Reilly, Bernard F. The Medieval Spains. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe. Spoleto: Centro Italiano di studi sull'Alto Medioevo. Stavans, Ilan. London: Routledge. Wasserstein, David J. The petition claims that Cordoba's Mezquita is not the sole property of the Catholic Church in , Demetrio Fernandez had it entered in the land register is his own name , but a world heritage site for all humanity.
This argument will be a decisive factor in the Andalusian regional government's current consultations on the matter. That the petitioners' zeal is tinged with blue-eyed idealism is evident. The exemplary "harmony between different cultures" of which they rhapsodise is increasingly giving way to narrow-minded confrontation on the international stage.
When the two giant Buddha statues in Bamiyan — also a world heritage site that had survived unharmed one and a half millennia of Islamic rule as a cross between ancient Greek and regional art — were blown up as the work of "infidels" by mindless Taliban in , the event was considered an exception.
Since then, however, we have seen ancient art in Kabul destroyed — or more frequently stolen and sold off — by Taliban because it was "heathen"; we have heard that American tanks drove over the ruins of Babylon in Iraq; we have witnessed ancient Egyptian treasures from the National Museum being shattered in the Cairo uprisings; and we have heard Muslim fundamentalists calling for the destruction of all ancient Egyptian monuments.
The voices of well-meaning German architects supporting Egypt's claim for the return of the Nefertiti bust have long since fallen silent. Similarly, the recent demand in the Turkish parliament for the Hagia Sophia to become a mosque again caused little more than embarrassed silence in Europe, a silence in which the Spanish call might also fade away unheard. People are gradually coming to the conclusion that the common civilisational foundation spanning all faiths and ideologies, honoured ceaselessly by UNESCO, has become about as stable as a shifting sand dune.
Interesting article. What's not mentioned is that the muslims built the mosque after they destroyed the church that stood there.
I thus see no reason to turn the church into something else. Also, muslim rule of Spain killed tens of thousands of non-muslims. Slavery and destruction of Christian and Jewish holy sites by muslim were rampant. The islamic heritage of Spain is a heritage of terror and misery, so why embrace it?
Rather, the north Africans and middle easterners should embrace their Judeo-Christian heritage as the entire area used to be Jewish and Christian for centuries and millennia before islam started to exist. Due to its copious oil reserves, Libya was one of North Africa's richest states.
Córdoba also spelled Cordova in English, is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital . The Great Mosque of Córdoba dates back to this time. After a .. In January the plaques reading "His Excellency the Head of State and. The Great State of Córdoba - Kindle edition by Butch Field. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Use features like.
Following the toppling of long-time dictator Muammar Gaddafi, the country was plunged into chaos. As a result of the ongoing civil war, large swathes of Libya could now even run out of drinking water. By Lisa Hanel. Skip to main content. Many people in Spain feel that the Bishop of Cordoba would like the world to forget that his cathedral was once a mosque. But Spain is not the only Mediterranean country where religious ignorance poses a threat to architectural treasures. By Dieter Bartetzko. A region of architectural palimpsests That's a convincing argument, at least with regard to tolerance within early Islam.
It became the main mosque in the city, which was at the time a Moorish city. Since the Reconquista, it has been a Catholic cathedral. Top tourist attraction: La Mezquita is one of the most popular visitor attractions in the city. Entrance fees were recently increased dramatically; the resulting income goes exclusively to the Catholic Church. Any journey to southern Spain, to Al-Andalus, is akin to the start of a dream that finds its beguiling continuation beyond the Pillars of Hercules, in the Andalusian cities of Anti-Semitism There is no tradition of anti-Semitism in Islam Some are suggesting that Muslims are bringing anti-Semitism to Europe.
However, it was in fact Europeans who took anti-Semitism to the Arab world in the first place. Diplomats in