managewebsite.com/cache/map15.php She was confined to the apartment to escape detection, and her only occupation was reading.
Reading fell down like a curtain over her painful situation, allowing her to forget for a while. She had to tear herself away from her books to go to meals, even though she felt hungry constantly. Once, when Bronislava ventured out of this house, she met two women. Although one was younger, Bronislava describes her as graying and prematurely aged. As she talked with these women, the younger one revealed that she had been a librarian and kindergarten teacher before the war.
Scared for them both, Bronislava kept this information to herself, but she started to visit Stefania often, talking for hours about books. When the family currently hiding her put these visits to an end, Bronislava felt bereft—though the bombing of Warsaw soon made her forget all about the two women.
Her tale has nothing to say about how they fared through this second uprising. He says that after the war Eleanora worked as a librarian at an orphanage, and that she and Stefania came to live there. But why? Did they live among the children? Did the work require that they stay? Marcin explained this alteration to me by saying that it would make more sense to Polish children, to whom Oz means nothing.
His comment made me consider what American children, including me, thought Oz meant. Her own mother was dead and, during the war, her father was in a POW camp. In the first, taken in , she stands round-cheeked and glossy-curled next to Eleanora, who wears her white hair pulled back from her face. There is snow on the ground and both women are bundled up.
After the war she lived in an orphanage with her elderly mother, who waited on her hand and foot as she recovered her health. They met a young boy named Marcin, who loved to visit their book-filled apartment with his parents. My brief thanks and my comments on what struck me about her life seem to have satisfied him. In my mind, this further reinforces what he said in his second e-mail about why the contact we had established was important:.
One being that it is always nice to know that there are still people who trust others that their motives for contact are honest and selfless. Secondly, I realized recently that I may be the only person who still cherishes the memory of Stefania Wortman, although I personally met her briefly, and in that sense I felt some kind of simple moral obligation that the fact of her existence should be passed on. Who would then be better suited but you? I am very happy that I got you interested. Improbably, there is no twist to this story beyond the surprise of meeting an intriguing woman who died a few years after I was born.
Marcin says that he lost touch with the women, and that Stefania died on the June 18, , possibly from a relapse of breast cancer. His photo of the headstone she shares with Eleanora, a dark gray marker decorated with evergreen and daffodils, confirms the date. In a essay Marcin quoted to me, she argued for the importance of fairy tales, insisting that they should never be supplanted by always-improving technology. I wonder if Stefa would have agreed with Baum that fantasy can be detached from moral instruction.
I wonder how she would articulate the function of fantastical stories from her perspective, later in a century of horrors. On their way to find Glinda the Good, Dorothy and her companions encounter an entire town made—people and all—of pretty but delicate china. Decades later, as an adult, Baum integrated his tormentor into the novel as the Scarecrow.
He wished to make something captivating for the window displays, so he used an eclectic assortment of scraps to craft a striking figure. From a washboiler he made a body, from bolted stovepipes he made arms and legs, and from the bottom of a saucepan he made a face. Baum then placed a funnel hat on the figure, which ultimately became the Tin Woodman. Rockefeller was the nemesis of Baum's father, an oil baron who declined to purchase Standard Oil shares in exchange for selling his own oil refinery. Baum scholar Evan I. Schwartz posited that Rockefeller inspired one of the Wizard's numerous faces.
In one scene in the novel, the Wizard is seen as a "tyrannical, hairless head". When Rockefeller was 54 years old, the medical condition alopecia caused him to lose every strand of hair on his head, making people fearful of speaking to him. In the early s, Baum's play Matches was being performed when a "flicker from a kerosene lantern sparked the rafters", causing the Baum opera house to be consumed by flames. Scholar Evan I. Schwartz suggested that this might have inspired the Scarecrow's severest terror: "There is only one thing in the world I am afraid of. A lighted match. In , Baum lived in Aberdeen, Dakota Territory , which was experiencing a drought, and he wrote a witty story in his "Our Landlady" column in Aberdeen's The Saturday Pioneer  about a farmer who gave green goggles to his horses, causing them to believe that the wood chips that they were eating were pieces of grass.
Similarly, the Wizard made the people in the Emerald City wear green goggles so that they would believe that their city was built from emeralds. During Baum's short stay in Aberdeen, the dissemination of myths about the plentiful West continued. However, the West, instead of being a wonderland, turned into a wasteland because of a drought and a depression.
In , Baum moved his family from South Dakota to Chicago. At that time, Chicago was getting ready for the World's Columbian Exposition in After discovering that the myths about the West's incalculable riches were baseless, Baum created "an extension of the American frontier in Oz". In many respects, Baum's creation is similar to the actual frontier save for the fact that the West was still undeveloped at the time. The Munchkins Dorothy encounters at the beginning of the novel represent farmers, as do the Winkies she later meets.
Baum's wife frequently visited her niece, Dorothy Louise Gage. The infant became gravely sick and died on November 11, , from "congestion of the brain" at exactly five months. When the baby, whom Maud adored as the daughter she never had, died, she was devastated and needed to consume medicine. Bossed around by his wife Matilda , Henry rarely dissented with her. He flourished in business, though, and his neighbors looked up to him. Likewise, Uncle Henry was a "passive but hard-working man" who "looked stern and solemn, and rarely spoke". The stories of barbarous acts against accused witches scared Baum.
Two key events in the novel involve wicked witches who both meet their death through metaphorical means. Baum held different jobs, moved a lot, and was exposed to many people, so the inspiration for the story could have been taken from many different aspects of his life. Baum, a former salesman of china, wrote in chapter 20 about china that had sprung to life. The original illustrator of the novel, W.
Denslow , could also have influenced the story and the way it has been interpreted. Baum and Denslow had a close working relationship and worked together to create the presentation of the story through the images and the text. Color is an important element of the story and is present throughout the images, with each chapter having a different color representation. Denslow also added characteristics to his drawings that Baum never described.
For example, Denslow drew a house and the gates of the Emerald City with faces on them. In the later Oz books, John R. Neill , who illustrated all of the sequels, continued to include these faces on gates. Baum did not offer any conclusive proof that he intended his novel to be a political allegory. Historian Ranjit S. Dighe wrote that for 60 years after the book's publication, "virtually nobody" had such an interpretation until Henry Littlefield , a high-school teacher. Littlefield's thesis achieved some support, but has been strenuously attacked by others.
The Wonderful Wizard of Oz has become an established part of multiple cultures, spreading from its early young American readership to becoming known throughout the world. It has been translated or adapted into well over fifty languages, at times being modified in local variations. For instance, in some abridged Indian editions, the Tin Woodman was replaced with a horse.
The film adaptation has become a classic of popular culture, shown annually on American television from to and then several times a year every year beginning in The New York Times , September 8, . The Wonderful Wizard of Oz received positive critical reviews upon release. In a September review, The New York Times praised the novel, writing that it would appeal to child readers and to younger children who could not read yet. The review also praised the illustrations for being a pleasant complement to the text.
During the first 50 years after The Wonderful Wizard of Oz ' s publication in , it received little critical analysis from scholars of children's literature. According to Ruth Berman of Science Fiction Studies , the lists of suggested reading published for juvenile readers never contained Baum's work. The lack of interest stemmed from the scholars' misgivings about fantasy, as well as to their belief that lengthy series had little literary merit. It has frequently come under fire over the years. In , the director of Detroit's libraries banned The Wonderful Wizard of Oz for having "no value" for children of his day, for supporting "negativism", and for bringing children's minds to a "cowardly level".
Professor Russel B. Nye of Michigan State University countered that "if the message of the Oz books—love, kindness, and unselfishness make the world a better place—seems of no value today", then maybe the time is ripe for "reassess[ing] a good many other things besides the Detroit library's approved list of children's books". In , seven Fundamentalist Christian families in Tennessee opposed the novel's inclusion in the public school syllabus and filed a lawsuit.
The judge ruled that when the novel was being discussed in class, the parents were allowed to have their children leave the classroom. Leonard Everett Fisher of The Horn Book Magazine wrote in that Oz has "a timeless message from a less complex era, and it continues to resonate". The challenge of valuing oneself during impending adversity has not, Fisher noted, lessened during the prior years. In a review, Bill Delaney of Salem Press praised Baum for giving children the opportunity to discover magic in the mundane things in their everyday lives.
He further commended Baum for teaching "millions of children to love reading during their crucial formative years". The Library of Congress has declared The Wonderful Wizard of Oz to be "America's greatest and best-loved homegrown fairytale", also naming it the first American fantasy for children and one of the most-read children's books. After George M. Hill's bankruptcy in , copyright in the book passed to the Bobbs-Merrill Company.
The editions they published lacked most of the in-text color and color plates of the original. It was not until the book entered the public domain in that new editions, either with the original color plates, or new illustrations, proliferated. Notable among them are the Pennyroyal edition illustrated by Barry Moser , which was reprinted by the University of California Press , and the Annotated Wizard of Oz edited by Michael Patrick Hearn , which was published by W. Norton and included all the original color illustrations, as well as supplemental artwork by Denslow.
Baum wrote The Wonderful Wizard of Oz without any thought of a sequel. After reading the novel, thousands of children wrote letters to him, requesting that he craft another story about Oz. In , he wrote and published the first sequel, The Marvelous Land of Oz , explaining that he grudgingly wrote the sequel to address the popular demand. In his The Emerald City of Oz , he wrote that he could not continue writing sequels because Ozland had lost contact with the rest of the world.
The children refused to accept this story, so Baum, in and every year thereafter until his death in May , wrote an Oz book, ultimately writing 13 sequels.
He wrote, "To please a child is a sweet and a lovely thing that warms one's heart and brings its own reward. Until this version, the book had inspired a number of now less well known stage and screen adaptations, including a profitable Broadway musical and three silent films. The film was considered innovative because of its songs, special effects , and revolutionary use of the new Technicolor. The story has been translated into other languages at least once without permission and adapted into comics several times.
Following the lapse of the original copyright, the characters have been adapted and reused in spin-offs, unofficial sequels, and reinterpretations, some of which have been controversial in their treatment of Baum's characters. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Frank Baum. For other uses, see The Wonderful Wizard of Oz disambiguation. This last story of The Wizard is ingeniously woven out of commonplace material. It is, of course, an extravaganza, but will surely be found to appeal strongly to child readers as well as to the younger children, to whom it will be read by mothers or those having charge of the entertaining of children.
There seems to be an inborn love of stories in child minds, and one of the most familiar and pleading requests of children is to be told another story. See also: List of Oz books. Main article: Adaptations of The Wizard of Oz. Oz portal Novels portal. Frank Baum With Pictures by W.
Chicago: Geo. Hill Co. Retrieved February 6, — via Internet Archive. Rogers, L. Frank Baum, pp. The New York Times. October 27, Archived from the original on December 3, Retrieved December 3, Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original PDF on November 28, Retrieved November 28, Salem Press. Grand Rapids Herald. She assists Dorothy's friends, who in her presence uneasily remember their rags, their scars, their crude beastliness. Kindliness repays adoration, for Glinda. The sixth form puts the third form on to the ropes, and all ends happily at Prize-Day.
Oz revenges as many old injuries as it invents fantastic fulfillments: the chief resentment apparently, next to having been brought into the world in the wrong form, is for having been brought into the world at all. Though "mothers" are worse than "fathers" in the Oz world, both are preferably extinct altogether. In no other American children's books, even Horatio Alger 's, do there seem to be so many orphans. No human Oz-star in our four-book canon ever has both parents at once.
Only the supers have a normal and usually comic family life. Eureka the cat is a foundling. Billina is presumably immaculately hatched and brought up by a farmer boy who to make the double point never knew until too late whether she was a hen or a rooster. But the horrible Dragonettes have a horrible mother.
Baum's fondness for automata and magically created beings can be safely attributed to this same rejection or exclusion of natural begetting. Only the Tin Woodman, whom we already know to be the most honest and touching of the Ozian creatures, is allowed mention of a real father and mother, though both are long dead. The Scarecrow is the contrivance of two farmers male , and Tik-Tok the invention of two inventors male. Tip by himself, while still male, gives life to the Gump and the Saw-Horse, but these are very lumpish productions, almost stillbirths; it would seem, in Oz as in the real world, that two progenitors are really necessary.
Mombi and Tip's creation of Jack Pumpkinhead seems to be an uglified travesty of birth as Tip's later transformation is a sweetened travesty of emasculation. After the boy has laboriously worked to make his man, the old woman comes along and sprinkles it with the powder of life, quickening it for her own nefarious purposes. And even this powder she had originally stolen from a male magician. The solemn Jack Pumpkinhead insists on addressing Tip as "Father"; and since Tip is a little boy who is really a little girl, the confusions and insults appear deliberately multiplied.
The drama of decapitation in the psychoanalytic vocabulary, decapitation and castration are synonymous is played over and over and again as entr'acte. The Tin Woodman, who has once chopped off his own head, chops off the head of a hunting Wildcat. Oz first appears as an enormous Head, hairless, armless, and legless. The Lion kills his opponent, the spider-monster, by striking off its head. The Scarecrow twists the necks of the Crows. The Scarecrow's head is also removable he tells Oz: "You are quite welcome to take my head off, as long as it will be a better one when you put it on again" ; and this is only one of a selection of demountable, retractable, and replaceable heads that culminate in Langwidere's gallery of thirty.
The Hammer-Heads use their heads like battering rams; the Scoodlers use theirs as missiles. The Gump is all head. Jack Pumpkinhead deserves his name: he is in continual fear lest his head rot off. And so on. The conversations about decapitation recall that other humorous work, The Mikado. Billina the hen is Oz's final topsy-turvy insult to injury. On the surface a "sensible" young female, she will have nothing to do with love, which like the suffragettes of Jinjur's army she sees only as masculine presumption "Do you think I'd let that speckled villain of a rooster lord it over me?
She lays eggs and has, apparently, hatched them, but she never mentions the offspring of this incubation; the barnyard role of the mother-hen is not for her. She speaks of "thirteen" as a suitable clutch to illustrate, presumably, her real feelings about this unlucky necessity. Laying to her is a sanitary habit "I feel better since I laid my morning egg" , and she is only concerned with the freshness infertility of her product.
She connives in the use of her eggs as poisonous weapons, in fact suggests it. Though she frees the Queen-mother of Ev and her children, it is not out of maternal concern; she derides the Queen's anxiety and tells her sarcastically, "Don't worry. Just at present they [the lifeless children] are out of mischief and perfectly safe, for they can't even wiggle. Come with me, if you please, and I'll show you how pretty they look. Sociologically viewed, the Oz myth as Baum created it can be considered a vast transvaluation of juvenile romantic values.
Boys' adventures become girls' adventures; girls' humiliations become boys' humiliations; boys' affairs with older boys become girls' affairs with older girls; and the mother is the villain instead of the father. It is a transvaluation because the values remain the same: traveling, fighting, and killing achieve the rewards, and the punishments are subordination and domesticity. It should be remembered that the Wicked Witch "tortures" Dorothy by making her do housework! The arena is no longer the social one of Louisa May Alcott but the transvestite one of a boy-turned-girl.
Baum has kissed his elbow; Tip has put on women's clothes; but it is only to breed more girls-turned-boys. In this connection it may not be insignificant to note that the L. Frank Baum stood for "Lyman. But both his name's syllables would have quickly grown hateful to a young fantasist continually addressed as "Lie Man! Baum's frantic popularity with young girl readers really requires no further explanation.
This audience, if not completely understanding, could appreciate his idolization of an immature and impubescent femininity. The combination of innocence with authority that produced all these girlish brows wrinkling over problems of finance and policy, these girlish arms driving chariots of state or extended imperiously, these girlish feet in the silver of safety or the satin of luxury, had the attraction, to them, of a mirror of Narcissus. What young boy readers saw in Oz is not so clear, though clearly it was not the image of themselves they found in boys' books.
But the boys Oz did strike were struck deep all or most of the adults who find Oz unforgettable seem to be men. In psychoanalytic language, the boyish girls of Oz are phallic, and thus deeply reassuring to boys or men with castration anxieties. The reassurance is against their unconscious fear that girlish girls are what they seem to be, castrated boys.
Apart from Oz, many of Baum's other fantasies offer examples of his obsession for those who care to look. Even Father Goose, His Book of which more later , Baum's first big "hit" as a children's author, has a title whose obvious commercial transposition a father goose is a gander also hints at a transposition of traditional authority-roles. The idea of ambivalent interchangeable sex is further emphasized in that book by the chapter on Twi land, where everything exists in double form.
John Dough and the Cherub was Baum's try at purely equivocal sex: Chick the Cherub is an incubator baby, and his or her sex is never disclosed. The "Trot" books, The Sea Fairies and Sky Island which Baum hoped would replace Oz , star another boyish little girl and her crippled one-legged male companion, with more queens and feminine warfare. Of all Baum's unconscious embodiments, in or out of Oz, Billina the hen must be the one most based on actual experience.
Baum had begun breeding and raising chickens in adolescence, a hobby—his family was wealthy—he still took seriously enough at the age of thirty to treat technically in his first published book, The Book of the Hamburgs. The previous portrait of Billina is too brief, chiefly because psychoanalytically she is an embarrassment of riches. Almost everything she does cries out for interpretation. Note that Billina comes to her audience already equipped with the fascination young children find in domestic fowl such as chickens or geese. They lay eggs, and from these fascinating eggs hatch apparently sexless, or sexually identical, babies.
With admirable simplicity, as children see it, both eggs and droppings emerge from the mother fowl's single body opening or cloaca. Kept ignorant of the reproductive purpose of the second female opening in humans, young children commonly surmise that they too were born through the human cloaca or anus, like eggs. This belief is forgotten or repressed with growing knowledge but retains much unconscious strength. Poultry-breeders must also consciously recognize—what many adult human males often resist recognizing—that male fowl do the work of fatherhood without a penis or intromittant organ.
This characteristic in itself could explain young Baum's engrossing interest in chickens as well as his later over-determination, after the success of Father Goose, His Book, to decorate his newly purchased house everywhere, on porch, walls, furniture, even to the extent of a specially made stained-glass living room window, with pictured geese.
Throughout the book which should be named after her, Billina is characterized by her regular laying. She is indifferently casual about the results, inviting Dorothy for example to eat her first egg though indignantly rejecting Dorothy's "cannibalistic" suggestion that she eat it herself and assenting silently when the Hungry Tiger is offered her second. Baum the poultry-fancier knows these eggs are infertile and takes pains to excuse Billina's indifference by telling us so through Billina's beak.
But his point is beyond his childish readers, to whom Billina's eggs are her babies. Consciously Baum may not know this, but his unconscious creature the Tiger knows, and four times in one speech warns us that it is babies, "fat babies," who are in danger. The Hungry Tiger, by the way, has a previous record: another Oz-critic has already seen in his hangup between appetite and conscience the psychoanalytic concept of id and superego.
Alas, this admission only conceals a deeper admission which is not made. The Tiger, a traditional glutton, is also a eunuch. Like the Cowardly Lion, with whom he has everything in common both are now slaves, happily yoked to Ozma's chariot , he has resigned completely his too-demanding masculine role in the jungle. Indeed, conceptually the Tiger is just another and weaker form of the Lion, as Tik-Tok is another and weaker form of the Tin Woodman.
To return to Billina: while no eggs or babies actually suffer before the final climactic sacrifice but in a good cause! Eggs or no eggs, Billina is a hen, and therefore a mother. But not a good mother. Noticeable throughout the book is her repeated morning "kut, kut, kadaw! Quite literally and as the proverb says, Billina is a "crowing hen. To know she is a bad mother it is not even necessary to hear her mock a good mother the Queen of Ev , though it helps.
Since there is no other in this Oz book, Billina herself must be the mother-villain—as in a very real sense she is. She is not only a bad mother but a bad child. Couched under the king's throne hens more naturally roost somewhere higher, but let it pass , she is the primal guilty eavesdropper on the parents' secrets. Everything is there, even to being awakened from sleep by their noise! The Nome King's nagging Chief Steward takes the part of wife. In her next-morning's bargaining with the King, Billina uses as counter her latest casual egg—for which, contrarily, the King shows the most frightened respect.
In his womanless underground world women's alarming fertility is "poisonous," unsafe except as lifeless ornament explaining his transformation of the Queen of Ev. His anxious fib about "surface" things should not deceive us: of the thirty-odd surface creatures invading the King's domain, only one has this quality he fears.
Billina is now revealed as the book's heroine, to the joy and confusion of the youthful reader. Joy because of the coming comeuppance of that wicked man, the King; confusion because this is going to be done, and can only be done, by a mother. Mothers don't do these things in Oz. There is also here a very deep and troubling confusion between good and evil, which the childish reader—and probably also the author—feels but cannot resolve, and so must put out of mind by violent action.
Billina must necessarily change her identification-role, which she does, aptly enough, in the transformation scene, where for the first time she acts alone and we see only through her eyes. She turns now into the girlish ideal Glinda the Good again , though this time more down-to-earth: the swaggering, scoffing but kindly older girl, whom the younger girl watches with frightened awe as she breaks all of Mama's rules unharmed.
This scene also supplies the point, which few children—or mothers—will miss, of the Queen of Ev turned into a footstool. But the kindly transformations are not the climax of the book, which is of course the King's humiliation. In that violent hurly-burly the child reader is completely satisfied, put beyond good and evil. The chapter ends in a complete denial of fertility-value, with eggs being created wholesale and scattered by the hundreds on the ground. Billina's portrait has been objected to on the ground that she appears in the fifth book, The Road to Oz, with baby chicks.
Giving a whimsical answer to a whimsical objection, the explanation might be that in the interim she has matured, met the rooster of her dreams, married and settled down.
Editorial Reviews. About the Author. The author has enjoyed reading over one hundred stories Buy now with 1-Click ®. Promotions apply Whatever Happened to Dorothy of Oz? (Featuring Dorothy Gale as a Mature Adult Book 1) Kindle Edition Like most seven-year-old, she looked forward to growing taller and older!. Dorothy Gale is a fictional character created by American author L. Frank Baum as the main In the Oz books, Dorothy is raised by her aunt and uncle in the bleak of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, Dorothy brings them to live in Oz; the plot features a tour of Oz (DOROTHY: "I am Dorothy, and I am one of the Kansas Gales.
But no father chicken is brought on the scene and Billina retains enough maternal indifference to announce she has given all her chicks the same name. We adults, who know what happens when a cock and a hen appear to be fighting, might consider these chicks the natural result of Billina's "fight" with the Evian rooster in Langwidere's hen-yard. But the right answer is that Billina's character is no more consistent than any other Ozian's from book to book.
As to the overall span of Oz books: not only their internal evidence but the demands of the commercial "series" they became demands with which Baum was thoroughly familiar from his other potboiling work must contradict the sentimental idea that Oz was extended as a planned Utopia, coherent legend, or "labor of love. The plain evidence is that Baum was reluctant to go on repeating himself. Though not carrying his reluctance as far as Arthur Conan Doyle , for example—who grew to detest the very mention of his unconscious creation—Baum did announce in his fifth book and confirm in his sixth that he had had it with Oz.
Making our four-book canon even more reasonable. But Baum was a gentle, unaggressive man, in debt, the support of his family, a semi-invalid during his last years, and he can hardly be blamed for doing what so many other more healthy and wealthy writers do as a way of life. And this is my room—and you're all here—and I'm not going to leave here ever again, because I love you all! In the end, Dorothy learns that the secret to getting back to Kansas is to click the heels of the Ruby Slippers together three times and say, "There's no place like home; there's no place like home.
The film's interest in home is certainly not accidental. Arthur Freed, who assisted producer Mervyn LeRoy, told screen writer, Noel Langley, that he should remember at all times "that Dorothy is only motivated by one object in Oz; that is, how to get back home to her Aunt Em, and every situation should be related to this main drive" qtd. The motion picture version of L. Frank Baum's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz has, of course, greatly shaped many readers' impressions of the book. In the novel, however, Baum presents a much more ambivalent attitude toward "home.
In fact, as the series progresses, Dorothy, herself, becomes an explorer who, along with her Aunt Em and Uncle Henry, eventually rejects her Kansas home and domestic life to join a community of homeless nonconformists. Instead, his works validate Phyllis Bixler's assertion that in " Golden Age " books by male authors, children "typically find their pastoral locus amoenus, or 'felicitous space,' at some distance from their homes.
Can you help me find my way? Throughout the novel, Dorothy reiterates this desire to return home; at one point, she tells the Scarecrow, "No matter how dreary and gray our homes are, we people of flesh and blood would rather live there than in any other country, be it ever so beautiful. There is no place like home" As she continues her journey, she keeps trying to explain her home, Kansas, to individuals who have never heard of it.
I'm sure it's somewhere," she tells one man The desire to return home prompts Dorothy to go on a quest to meet the Wizard, to seek out the Wicked Witch of the West in order to kill her, and to travel to the country of the Quadlings to find the sorceress, Glinda. When Dorothy has the opportunity to ask the Wizard to send her home, she bluntly states that she does not like Oz, "although it is so beautiful" In fact, after the Wizard breaks his promise to help Dorothy by accidentally flying away in a hot air balloon, Dorothy weeps "bitterly" The novel ends with Dorothy's exclamation, "I'm so glad to be at home again!
Dorothy is not, of course, the only character to search for a home in the novel. The Scarecrow, the Tin Woodman, and the Lion all gain new homes in the kingdoms that they are to rule. Through the Lion, who loves the woods in the Quadling country, Baum also reiterates the novel's idea that the ideal home is a matter of personal taste. At one point, the Scarecrow says the woods are "gloomy. This point is also supported by the china princess, who tells Dorothy that she and her people have pleasanter lives in their own country, where they can move about and are not forced to decorate mantels.
As already noted, Dorothy makes a similar statement to the Scarecrow. The Scarecrow's response to Dorothy, however, suggests the novel's contradictory attitude toward home. He cannot understand why Dorothy feels the way she does about Kansas. It is fortunate for Kansas that you have brains" This tongue-in-cheek remark actually suggests the opposite notion—only brainless people live in Kansas. As a child reader of the Oz series, I remember agreeing with the Scarecrow. I never could understand Dorothy's affection for Kansas—for me, the ultimate wish fulfillment would be to go travel to Oz and eventually live there.
Evidently, contemporary readers communicated similar feelings to Baum because, in Tik-Tok of Oz —the eighth book in the series—Betsy Bobbin, who has just permanently relocated to Oz, says that she wishes that "every little girl in the world could live in the land of Oz; and every little boy, too! Interestingly, the novel and its sequels often include images and characters that subtly undercut the message that there is "no place like home.
The tiny house belonging to Aunt Em and Uncle Henry, we are told, had once "been painted, but the sun blistered the paint and the rains washed it away, and now the house was as dull and gray as everything else" Aunt Em, herself, had once been young and pretty, but her environment has "taken the sparkle from her eyes and left them a sober gray.
She no longer smiles, and, when Dorothy laughs, she screams and presses her hand on her heart. Clearly, Dorothy's Kansas is a joyless, destructive environment. We are told that the only reason Dorothy has not grown gray, too, is because of Toto. In contrast, when Baum describes Oz, even with its dangerous witches and fierce Kalidahs, it is full of life and "marvelous beauty" As the novel continues, homes and houses are often presented as physically confining or destructive. In the first chapter, Dorothy's house is plucked from its repressive environment and turned into an instrument of destruction.
When it lands in Oz, it destroys the Wicked Witch of the East. Granted, the house does free the Munchkins from bondage, but Dorothy is still repulsed by the fact that her home has become a killing machine. Dorothy is soon on her journey and, despite her protestations that she wants to return home, does "not feel nearly as bad as you might think a little girl would who had been suddenly whisked away from her own country and set down in the midst of a strange land" Before she leaves her home, Dorothy locks the front door and puts the key in her pocket.
This may not seem significant, but, throughout this book and those that follow, homes and dwellings frequently become prisons that are carefully locked. The Emerald City is a garrison protected by the Guardian of the Gate, and the front gate must be locked and unlocked to let travelers enter and leave. For most of the characters, the Emerald City is prisonlike and confining.
The domestic quarters in the Emerald City are not comfortable to the Scarecrow and Tin Woodman, who do not sleep. For the Lion, the Emerald City is stifling. The Wizard of Oz, himself, has become a prisoner of his own palace; he closets himself in a room so that none of his subjects can discover that he is a humbug.
In the witch's castle in the land of the Winkies, the next house the characters encounter, the Lion is imprisoned in a cage, and Dorothy is enslaved, although she does not have anything worse to do than light domestic chores like those she performed back in Kansas. As in later Oz books, the adults reject traditional homes and female roles. Few, if any, of the father and mother figures are married, and most live alone.
For example, the Tin Woodman once was a human being who, because of an enchanted axe, has lost all of the human parts of his body, which are, part by part, replaced with tin. As a result, he has lost all desire for the woman he formerly wanted to marry. He has become emasculated, and when—in a later novel, The Tin Woodman of Oz —he seeks out his former lover, he does not stay with her.
As for the Scarecrow, twice in the novel once by Dorothy and once by a mother Stork , he has to be removed from a pole that, without a lot of imagination, can be viewed as a phallic symbol. Neither the Lion nor the Wizard can be described as a whole man—the Lion lacks the stereotypical male attribute of courage, while the Wizard has no real power.
He is a fake or humbug.
The only significant real father that Dorothy meets in the novel is a man who lets her and her companions stay at his farmhouse. But, for no apparent reason, Baum has chosen to render him physically powerless; the man has a hurt leg that confines him to a couch; he is another image of emasculation. Later, the King of the Winged Monkeys tells the story of the sorceress, Gayelette, whose greatest sorrow is that she cannot find a whole man to love, "since all the men were too much too stupid and ugly to mate with one so beautiful and wise" To her chagrin, the boy she raises to be her husband, Quelala, is dumped into a river by the Winged Monkeys just before his wedding to cool him off.
The novel's most-likely candidates for mother figures, with the exception of Aunt Em, are either destroyed by Dorothy, as is the case with the Wicked Witches of the East and West, or are, like Glinda, single women who have no need for men and who surround themselves with the young Amazons that are Glinda's court. While Dorothy chooses to return to her Aunt Em and Uncle Henry, her friends seem to be happy without families or traditional homes. As Baum continues the series, it becomes clear that his characters generally prefer a nomadic life, one without the traditional responsibilities of home and family, both of which are frequently attacked in his works.
The first sequel to The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, The Marvelous Land of Oz, more openly expresses an anxiety about domestication and the confining nature of homes. The protagonist, Tip, is threatened with being turned into a marble statue that will be placed in the garden of the only home he has ever known by the evil witch, Mombi, who, for all intents and purposes, assumes the role of his mother. Not wanting to be rooted to his home—whether as a marble statue or merely as a domestic slave doing chores for the witch—Tip determines to run away. Tip and Jack Pumpkinhead, the wooden man with the pumpkin head whom he has created, escape Mombi's house to seek their fortunes.
They soon find themselves involved with the Scarecrow, whose new home is being threatened by the Army of Revolt, a group of young girls who attack the people of the Emerald City with knitting needles. The Scarecrow, however, does not really care that he loses his kingdom or home. When he literally hangs up his crown, he says that he is "glad to get rid of it" They depart just in time, for the Army of Revolt, led by young General Jinjur, has forced all of the men in the city to take on domestic roles—cooking and cleaning.
At the end of the novel, however, they are freed with the help of the very nondomestic Glinda. We are told that at "once the men of the Emerald City cast off their aprons. And it is said that the women were so tired eating of their husbands' cooking that they all hailed the conquest of Jinjur with joy" Tip, however, is not so lucky. It turns out that he is really Ozma, princess of Oz, who has been turned into a boy so no one will find her. Tip has no desire to settle down and make a home in the Emerald City.
I don't want to be a girl! He is turned back into Ozma anyway. His one consolation is that no one will be able to claim that he is Jack Pumpkinhead's father anymore. In the third book in the series, Ozma of Oz, Dorothy returns to Oz, and it becomes clear that her home life is in trouble.
Uncle Henry is ill "because he had been working so hard on his Kansas farm that his health had given way and left him weak and nervous" He and Dorothy leave Aunt Em to watch the farm and travel far away from home to Australia so he can regain his health. Dorothy, however, is washed overboard by a storm and sails to the Land of Ev, which is just outside of Oz, in a chicken coop, another prisonlike home image.
Her companion is Billina, a talking hen who, as Osmond Beckwith argues, is "not a good mother" and uses her egg babies as weapons The main quest in this novel is not to return Dorothy home—on this trip, she rarely mentions home after Ozma rescues her from the tower where yet another adult woman, the Princess Langwidere with her many interchangeable heads, has locked Dorothy up in order to force her to give up her own head. As Peter Glassman suggests,. The main theme of Wonderful Wizard is also present in Ozma, but this time it is less dominant. Dorothy still believes, "there is no place like home," but she is not as desperate to return to her uncle as on her first trip, perhaps because this time she does not feel so out of place in this incredible fairyland.
Now an experienced adventurer with treasured friends in Oz, it is her love for her uncle, not her need for his love, that makes her wish to return to him. The main plot of this novel, however, revolves around an act of domestic violence. The Queen of Ev, along with her ten children five sons and five daughters , has been enslaved by the Nome King.
According to the novel, Ozma "wished to undertake the adventure of liberating the poor prisoners. The queen and her children are the first major family encountered in the series and, we soon learn, they are the victims of a self-serving husband and father who sold them to the Nome King and then, out of remorse, killed himself by jumping into the sea. The Nome King, who takes the place of the King of Ev, transforms the royal family into ornaments—most significantly, the Queen of Ev becomes a footstool.
Order is restored, the royal family is saved, the oldest son of the Queen of Ev ascends the throne, and Dorothy is returned to her Uncle Henry in Australia, with no assurance that life will be better back home. Near the end of the novel, Dorothy and her friends once again encounter the former girl rebel, Jinjur, who is now married. While it might seem that Jinjur has finally been domesticated—she tells Ozma that she has married a man with nine cows and is "willing to lead a quiet life and mind my own business" —her husband is home nursing a black eye she has given him because he milked the wrong cow.
Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz, the next book in the series, also contains negative images of home and family life.
This time, the novel begins with the San Francisco earthquake the book was published in , which transports Dorothy and her cousin, Zeb, to a world at the center of the earth. Their trip there, however, puts them in danger because they have become part of a rain of stones that destroys some of the glass homes of the Mangaboos. The head Sorcerer quickly indicts them. Despite the fact that they want to protect their rather delicate homes, the Mangaboos, like many of Baum's other creations, do not have mothers or fathers.
They are vegetable people who are planted when they become old so that new Mangaboos can grow from their stalks. Dorothy and Zeb are soon joined by the Wizard of Oz, who has never actually made it back to his Omaha home after he left Oz in the first book. As the group journeys underground, they encounter two other apparently happy families.
The first are the people of Voe. The travelers have dinner with the seemingly happiest family in any of the Oz books. Its members, however, are completely invisible and cannot see one another. Such a family, apparently, cannot exist openly in the worlds of Oz, which are filled with homeless orphans and eccentric individuals. The next family Dorothy encounters is composed of several "dragonettes" and the mother who will readily devour Dorothy if given a chance. At the beginning of the novel, Dorothy and the Shaggy Man become lost actually they have been transported to a magical land by Ozma who allows them to have some adventures before bringing them to her birthday party, one of several described in the series.
Dorothy is less concerned than ever about going home. And who would be after attending a party with guests such as Santa Claus and Chick the Cherub, an "Incubator Baby" with no parents?
Eventually, Dorothy returns to Kansas. The Shaggy Man, however, has no home and relocates to Oz. By this time, Polychrome and Button Bright have also gone back to their homes, although they are to return to Oz time and time again. Despite the fact that they have loving parents, they are always wandering off and becoming lost; evidently, they are expressing a subconscious desire to escape from their homes. Baum's clearly contradictory attitudes towards home come to a head in The Emerald City of Oz, which had originally been intended to be the last book in the series.
He adds:. It was not a big farm, nor a very good one, because sometimes the rain did not come when the crops needed it, and then everything withered and dried up. Once a cyclone had carried away Uncle Henry's house, so that he was obliged to build another; and as he was a poor man he had to mortgage his farm to get the money to pay for the new house. Baum then recaps Uncle Henry's trip to Australia to regain his health and explains that "Uncle Henry grew poorer every year, and the crops raised on the farm only bought food for the family" In short, Uncle Henry is about to lose the farm because the mortgage is due.
He and Aunt Em then suggest that Dorothy might earn money by doing housework or becoming "a nurse-maid to little children" Dorothy's fate, it seems, is to be domesticated, to become the sort of mother figure that she and her friends in Oz have tried to avoid. In the end, the solution to the family's financial problems is that they will all relocate to Oz and desert Kansas altogether. Clearly, Dorothy can no longer find her heart's desire in her own backyard.
First, she travels to Oz via Ozma's magic belt, and then she has Ozma transport her aunt and uncle there as well. She asks Ozma to give her aunt and uncle a little house in which they can live. Ozma, however, will not allow Dorothy to live with her aunt and uncle.